Abstract— Average Surface Roughness (Ra) is one of the most frequently used texture parameters to define the quality of turned components. The roughness values of a turned surface much depends on cutting parameters such as cutting speed, feed rate and depth of cut. Optimization of these parameters is very important in relation to surface roughness as they reveal the best suitable conditions for the turning operation. In this project, a correlative study of machining parameters and the surface roughness for ferrous (stainless steel 304) and non–ferrous alloy (Aluminium) material is carried out. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques are employed in this analysis to explain the influence of different cutting parameters on surface roughness values. The combination of optimum experimental parameters can be found by machining these ferrous and non-ferrous materials in CNC turning center and finding the least surface roughness parameters. ANOVA analysis, integrated with Design Expert software, is used to determine effective ratios of the parameters and subsequently the relationships between input parameters and their responses relationship are established. The minimum surface roughness results in reference to spindle rpm, feed rate, and depth of cut are determined and estimation of the optimal surface roughness values (Ra) for least surface roughness are the results obtained in the study. In case of stainless steel 304, optimal values of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut against the least surface roughness value of 1.33 microns are found to be 220 m. min-1, 0.2 mm. rev-1 and 0.3 mm respectively. In case of Aluminium, optimal values of cutting speed, feed and depth of cut against the least surface roughness value of 2.8 microns are 200 m. min-1, 0.2 mm. rev-1 and 1.15 mm respectively. These results reaffirm that RSM and ANOVA techniques are useful and efficient in achieving optimal set of machining parameters for select ferrous and non-ferrous materials in correlating the surface finish values.
Keywords— Response Surface Methodology, Analysis of Variance, Computer Numerical Control, Surface Roughness, Machining Parameters.
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