Effect of Grazing Land Improvement Practices on Herbaceous production, Grazing Capacity and their Economics: Ejere district, Ethiopia
Abstract— The effects of different grazing land improvement practices on herbaceous production, grazing capacities and their economics were studied in Ejere district, west Shoa zone, Ethiopia. Four different treatments, i.e., application of Urea and Diammonium phosphate (DAP), cattle manure, wooden ash, and a control/no application) were randomly applied to the study plots in three replications for each treatment. All experimental plots were fenced throughout the study period. The application of urea and DAP significantly increased grass (3620.86 kg ha-1) and total biomass production (5742.93 kg ha-1). Of the 6 herbaceous species recorded in the Urea and DAP plots, four of them were grasses with Setaria verticellata having the highest percentage composition (35.54%) while the control plot was dominated by Cyperus rotundus (31.5%) and Cerastium octandrum (31.5%). Less land is required to maintain a tropical livestock unit (TLU) in Urea and DAP applied plots (0.03 ha TLU-1) than in plots applied with other treatments (mean = 0.09 ha TLU-1). Similar to the result of the biological data, the participants of the grassland day rated the Urea and DAP applied treatment best because of the high production of grass. Considering total biomass production, application of manure was advantageous to the farmers due to increased net benefits and the marginal rate of return is above the minimum accetable rate for this sort of treatment. On the other hand, considering grass production alone, application of Urea and DAP was more profitable for farmers as far as they store and sell it in the dry seasons. In conclusion, we recommend a long-term study to examine the effects of the different treatments on productivity of grazing lands, herbaceous species composition, grazing capacities, livestock, the environment, and their economics.
Keywords— Ash, grazing land improvement, manure, Urea, DAP.
Abstract— Renewable energy as an alternative of fossil fuel for minimizing pollution and related issues, has got significant role in recent years. Agricultural residues as a source of biomass can be used to produce biogas. Every year while production of agriculture product generates lots of agro-residues and in many cases either left behind with no use or burn. Whereas can be prevented losing this source of energy by converting to the other types of energy. Nevertheless in present study assessing the potential of producing biogas out of biomass (agricultural residue) during one year in Karnataka state has conducted. For this purpose, production of agricultural crop residues data during one year depends on volatile solid (VS), extracted and according to the related coefficient, potential of biogas (methane) production computed. Results showed Maximum extracted methane respectively belonged to the rice, jowar, ragi, peanut and cotton residues. The total potential of methane production during the one year, 6391403732 cubic meters estimated.
Keywords— agriculture residues, waste management, biomass, biogas.
CdTe quantum dots/Poly (diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) multilayer films: preparation and application for gaseous sensors
Abstract— CdTe quantum dots (QDs)/Poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA) multilayer films (QDMF) have been self-assembled by layer-by-layer (LBL) technique. CdTe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by using Te, NaBH4, and CdCl2 as precursors and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as stabilizer. The as-prepared composites were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), UV-vis adsorption spectrum(UV-vis), and Fluorescence spectrum(FS), respectively. It was shown that the self-assembled QDMF in this study could be used as gaseous sensors for detecting organic gases, such as ammonia, acetone, methanol and formaldehyde. The quenching mechanism of CdTe QDs multilayer films by formaldehyde was studied in detail and The detection limit was 10-236ppm.
Keywords— CdTe quantum dots, gaseous sensor, PDDA, QDMF.
Abstract— The biosorption of Malathion from aqueous solution by green algal biomass was investigated. The green algae used were of the species Spirogyra and was collected from Neugal river near Sujanpur, Himachal Pradesh. Batch biosorption experiments were performed to examine the effect of contact time, pH, biomass concentration and initial Malathion concentration. The concentration of residual Malathion concentration after biosorption was determined using UV-Vis Spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 309 nm. The maximum adsorption was found to be at pH 7 after a contact time of 5 hours with initial Malathion concentration of 100 mg/L and biomass of weight 75 mg. The equilibrium biosorption data were analyzed using Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm. Freundlich isotherm was found to be more favorable than Langmuir isotherm.
Keywords— algae, biosorption, isotherm, Malathion, pesticide.
The Relationship between Soil Moisture and Temperature Vegetation on Kirklareli City Luleburgaz District A Natural Pasture Vegetation
Abstract— This study was realized in 2014 – 2015 in two different sections of Kirklareli city Luleburgaz district Sakizkoy village natural pasture in order to research the effect of soil moisture and soil temperature on area covered by vegetation, plant species and dry yield. As research area, study was conducted in two different sections defined as A and B located to the north and south of village coppice forest area located within the borders of Kirklareli city Luleburgaz district Sakizkoy village. By this study, the relation between soil moisture and temperature with plant species were evaluated by CANOCO 4.5 computer program. Accordingly, the effect of ecological values on vegetative properties was presented. According to research results, soil moisture and temperature have significant effect on vegetation. In the first year when soil moisture was high, hay yield was 2901.9 kg/ha while the yield was detected as 480.1 kg/ha after soil temperature (which is inversely correlated with soil moisture) increased in the second year. It was determined that Lolium perenne (one of the dominant species of vegetation) is common in parcels with high moisture while Chrysopogon gryllus is common in parcels where soil temperature is high.
Keywords— pasture, dry yield, soil moisture, soil temperature, CANOCO 4.5.
Abstract— The study comprises estimate of wet deposited nitrogenous compounds in Assam (India). Deposition has been estimated from a survey works (2010-11) at urban and peri-urban areas of Assam. Air samples were collected by clinical syringe (10 cm3) for Oxides of Nitrogen (NO, NO2: NOx) and reduced Nitrogen (NH3, NH4+: NHy). The samples were diffused into 10 cm3 each of distilled water and 0.1N HCl respectively for estimation of mean concentration of weighted hydrogen (µeql-1), quantity of elemental nitrogen (N) or nitrate (NO3-1) and ammonium (NH4+) ions expressed in mg l-1 or kg ha-1y-1. The measured concentrations of the nitrogenous compounds were interpolated with a properly used Kriging Technique on a 1km x 1km grid covering districts characterised by varying congestions of population, vehicular transport and of industrial evidences. There were many fold variations of these air quality parameters among the major sites and locations of the pollutants e.g. nitrogen deposited through aerosol of its oxides ranged from 6.0-38 kg ha-1yr-1, whereas nitrogen accumulation from the reduced aerosol was 7-24 kg ha-1yr-1. Tissue nitrogen in some indicator plant species (e.g.Pinus longifolia, Ficus benjamina), collected from the square grids of polluted areas was also elevated. Thus, the hypothesis that the North-east India, especially Assam is also facing with enrichment of nitrogenous pollution due to anthropogenic activities, mass vehicular and industrial growth, was tested.
Keywords— Oxides of nitrogen, reduced nitrogen, weighted hydrogen, aerosols, pollution.
Abstract— The uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil was investigated in the presence of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite, typical 2:1 clay. Two insect species, Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor, and two plant species, Helianthus annuus and Sorghum vulgare, were exposed to silver nanoparticles in the presence of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite in soil. Silver nanoparticles were characterized using techniques including transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, and powder X-ray diffraction. The levels of silver in test species exposed to silver nanoparticles were measured using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. An increase in the cation exchange capacity of soil was observed with the increase in the concentration of vermiculite in soil. The results suggested a decrease in the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles in soil by Acheta domesticus as a function of increasing concentrations of Vermiculite in soil. No apparent trend was observed in the remaining species. Both plant species were found to accumulate silver in their roots. The translocation of silver to stems and leaves was observed in the case of Helianthus annuus. Results from this study suggest that the presence of Vermiculite in soil could possibly decrease the uptake of silver from silver nanoparticles.
Keywords— Silver nanoparticles, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Helianthus annus, Sorghum vulgare, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer, Cation exchange capacity.
Comparison of Resistance to Fusarium wilts disease in Seeded and Regenerated Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)
Abstract— Plant tissue culture has been used as a tool for crop improvement in many different ways. Such as somaclonal variation that occurred in many different crops. In this study a program for disease resistance was established in sesame using somaclonal variation. As resistance to Fos is very important so different kinds and concentrations of Plant Growth Regulators were tested for producing of plantlet regenerated from apical shoot explants.
The results showed that the combination of BA and NAA also BA and IAA with ABA could be used for regenerating sesame plantlets from apical shoots. The difference in BA concentrations had a positive effect on shoot and root regeneration and at least plant regeneration. So with combination of high level of BA and low level of NAA shooting from explants was dominant and with low level of BA and high level of NAA rooting was progressed. Regenerated plantlets and seeded planlets were compared for examining of resistance or susceptibility to Fos. The result showed that somaclonal variant resulted from regeneration of shoot and root of sesame could lead to producing resistant plantlets.
Keywords— fusarium, sesame, somaclonal variation.
Abstract— Temperature being one of the indicators of climate change has become one of the most important discussions of recent times. Changes in temperature influence a variety of processes directly or indirectly which cut across every aspect of man existences. This paper therefore examined the trend in temperature as tools of climate change over Ebonyi State, South-Eastern Nigeria, which is an area well known for crop agriculture. Temperature data covering a period of 31 years (1984-2015) were collected and analyzed using mean, moving average, standard deviation coefficient of variation and linear regression. Result revealed that there is a positive trend in temperature over the study period and that the area is getting warmer by 0.0037oc annually, which is an Indication that Ebonyi State is experiencing a rise in air surface temperature. Since most of the inhabitants are dependent on economic activities that are temperature sensitive like farming, the study therefore recommends that measures should be taken by all stakeholders including the government, individuals and cooperate bodies to take the issue of climate variability serious in the study area in order to mitigate its impact in the long run.
Keywords— Climate Change, Ebonyi, Trend, Temperature, Agriculture.
Analyzing Marketing Margins and the Direction of Price Flow in the Tomato Value Chain of Limpopo Province, South Africa
Abstract— The Limpopo Province is home to South Africa’s tomato farming giants, some of whom also occupy the position of the largest producers of the commodity in the Southern Hemisphere. Regardless of its importance in the tomato industry of the country, there are few studies analysing the mechanism through which prices of tomatoes are determined and transmitted from the farm gate in Limpopo to the various provincial, local and international markets. This study attempts to fill the knowledge gap on the performance of Limpopo Province’s tomato markets by examining the marketing margins and the direction of price flow amongst the successive tomato marketing levels. By means of the Concurrent Marketing Margin Analysis approach, it was established that the farmers’ portion of the consumer’s Rand is low. About 85.1% of the consumer’s Rand goes to pay for marketing margins. Granger causality tests show that both the wholesale and retail prices are caused by farm gate prices. The farm level is therefore key to tomato price determination in Limpopo Province of South Africa and pertinent policies that improve the commodity’s primary sector may potentially enhance the other sectors in value chain that depend on tomato production.
Keywords— Limpopo Province, market dominance, marketing margins, price flow, tomato markets, vertical price linkage.
Genome–Wide Analysis and Expression Pattern of the AP2/ERF Gene Family in Kiwifruit under Waterlogging Stress Treatment
Abstract—APETALA2/ethylene response factor (AP2/ERF) transcription factors play important roles in the response to abiotic stresses. It is now possible to identify all of the AP2/ERF genes in the kiwifruit genome because the kiwifruit genome project has been completed. 183 AP2/ERF genes were identified and compared with AP2/ERF genes from Arabidopsis in this study. The 183 AP2/ERF kiwifruit genes were classified into four subfamilies: DREB (64), ERF (94), AP2 (19) and RAV (5), as well as one soloist. RNA-sequence and Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis results showed that 20 genes were responsive to waterlogging stress, suggesting that AP2/ERF transcription factors play important roles in the response to waterlogging stress in kiwifruit
Keywords—AP2/ERF, kiwifruit, waterlogging stress.
Abstract— Southern of Minas state, is a important producer of banana, especially the cultivars Prata-Anã, Nanicão and Maçã. These cultivars present low productivity, great plant height and are susceptible to major banana diseases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative and productive behavior of banana cultivars as Prata, Nanicão and Maçã, in Lavras, MG, Brazil to select those with the best features, of bunch and fruit size, lower production cycle and disease resistance in high land conditions. Were evaluated the following materials: type: ‘Prata’: ‘Prata-Anã’ (control), ‘BRS Maravilha’, ‘BRS Vitoria’, PA 94-01; type ‘Nanicão’: ‘Grande Naine’ (control) and FHIA 17 and type ‘Maçã’: ‘Maçã’ (control) and YB 42-03. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design with three replications and 16 plants per plot. Regarding the type ‘Prata-Anã’, ‘BRS Maravilha’ and PA 94-01 are recommended by their greater productivity, plant height, production cycle, flavor and fruit appearance in relation to cv ‘Prata-Anã’ traditionally grown in region. PV 94-01 and ‘Vitoria’, despite the greats plant height, are recommended due to the greater productivity. The YB 42-03 genotype is an alternative to ‘Maçã’ because it is similar to productivity, size and production cycle.
Keywords— Musa, Banana, Production cycle, Yield.
Abstract— The widespread use of silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) has facilitated their uninterrupted entry into various ecosystems. Nanoparticles are stabilized using a variety of approaches for various applications. The present study has investigated the uptake of polyvinylpyrrolidine (PVP) coated Ag NPs in a terrestrial system. Two insect (Acheta domesticus and Tenebrio molitor) and two plant species (Sorghum vulgare and Helianthus annuus) were used in the study. The effect of concentration and size of PVP-coated Ag NPs was investigated. The test species were maintained in soil spiked with 0, 1, 5, 25, 125, and 625 mg/kg PVP-coated 30-50 nm Ag NPs to test the effect of concentration of Ag NPs on uptake. Similarly, the test species were maintained in soil spiked with 25 mg/kg of 20, 30-50, and 50-80 nm PVP-coated Ag NPs to study the effect of size of nanoparticles on uptake. The PVP-coated Ag NPs were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and powder X-ray diffraction techniques. The levels of silver in test samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy. A concentration dependent increase in the levels of Ag in both the insect species was observed as a function of increasing concentrations of coated Ag NPs in soil. An increase in the levels of Ag as a function of increasing size of coated Ag NPs was observed with Acheta domesticus. No apparent trend was observed with Tenebrio molitor species. A concentration dependent increase in the levels of Ag in the roots of both the plants was observed as a function of increasing concentrations of coated Ag NPs in soil. Additionally, the translocation of Ag to other plant tissues was observed in Helianthus annuus, a dicot plant.
Keywords— Silver nanoparticles, polyvinylpyrrolidine, Acheta domesticus, Tenebrio molitor, Sorghum vulgare, Helianthus annuus, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectroscopy.
Abstract— Thirteen years old provenance trials of Acacia mangium from five provenances were established at five sites in the state of Sarawak, Malaysia, were sampled for this study. Fifty trees were sampled at random and cut to study radial variation in microfibril angle in the SS2 of secondary wall of the fibre using polarised microscope. Microfibril angle decreased from pith to bark with the greatest decrease occurred within the first two radial sampling near to the pith. It ranged from 5.9° to 28.8° with an overall mean and coefficient of variation of 12.6° and 45.8% respectively. It had a mean value of 21.4° at pith and 6.9° near the bark, which is a decrease of 67.8%. Highly significant different in mircrofibril angle were detected between radials of individual trees at α≥0.001. It was the major contributors to the total variance in which contributed for about 64.8%. Variations between trees were highly significant at α≥0.001 and accounted for 25.5% of the variation in microfibril angle while differences between the two orientations were not significant at α≤0.05.
Keywords— Acacia mangium, microfibril angle, radial variation, pith to bark, interaction.