Abstract— The study was conducted in West shewa and East wollega zones; Oromia Regional State with objective of the study is to identify the major rural source of energy consumption in the study area and to identify constraint and potential of energy use in the study area. About 141Male and 39 Female households were interviewed by structured questionnaire and data were analyzed by descriptive statistics under SPSS software. The characteristic of rural Energy source utilization , the majority of respondent uses firewood about 91.1% and about 16.9% the respondent uses agricultural residue for the purpose of baking Enjera , Firewood is the first widely used energy source, about 57.2% of the respondent uses Firewood and about 22.8% of the respondent uses charcoal for the purpose of heating mostly. About 55% the respondents uses kerosene and the respondent’s uses small size solar only about 20% for purpose of lighting. Electricity, battery cell, biogas was the lowest level energy sources of study area. In study area even if some rural HHs with access to electric service , they did not use for the purpose of Enjera baking as well as heating , only use for the purpose of lighting in study area. The main reasons for preference of biomass energy consumption in the study area is ease of access, cultural preference, cheap pricesandthe last reasons for choice biomass energy consumption is convenience when they used and no alternative source. Small HHs uses the available alternative energy technology like biogas, modern charcoal stove (leqach), Mirt stove, small size solar energy. Firewood and Agricultural residue were the potential energy sources in study area and unlike Agricultural research, lack of Research on Rural energy sources, lack of effective rural energy technology, socio-economic problem to accept available rural energy sources, lack of information where and how alternatives rural energy technology were identified as constraints of rural energy sources in study area. To fill these knowledge gap AERC, should be planned to introduce new Rural Energy sources and Woreda water, mine and energy office should disseminate the available alternative technologies for ruralhouseholds.
Keywords— Agricultural residue, Alternative Energy source, Biomass, Firewood, Rural Energy source.
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