IJOER : October 2016

AD Publications is a registered organization had published its Volume-2, Issue-10, October 2016 with International Journal of Engineering Research & Science

On the Kinetics of Palm Oil Crystallisation

Abstract In this work the crystallisation of palm oil (a typical melt) is used as a model process and kinetic parameters at different end temperatures and cooling rates were evaluated using three model approaches: two from the traditional melt fractionation, one from the classic solution crystallisation. The objective was to establish critical understanding on the various model approaches and their applications. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) was used to obtain the melting temperatures, isothermal induction times and enthalpy of the crystallisation for the Fisher-Turnbull and Avrami model evaluations, while turbidity and temperature probes were utilized to generate metastable zone width as a function of cooling rates for the classical Nyvlt model analysis. Our results show that the Fisher-Turnbull and the Nyvlt models are useful in estimating the nucleation rate constants (kn) with reasonable agreement: this unites the model approaches and allows comparison between fat fractionation and solution crystallisation of organics. While the Avrami model is capable of evaluating the growth mechanism of the formed crystals (n) and the overall crystallisation rate constant (k), none of the parameters can be compared with other models because of the different definitions of the growth mechanism as well as the dependence of k value on the growth mechanism when dealing different fats of varying compositions. This is the first contribution of this work. In addition, our results indicate that the growth of nuclei to a stable size was generally slower in melt crystallisation compared to a typical organic solution system due to the relatively lower rate constant (kn) and the high viscosity and multicomponent properties of the melt system used in this study. This is the second contribution of this work. Keywords Avrami model, Crystallisation, Fisher-Turnbull model, nucleation rate constant, Nyvlt model, palm oil fractionation.

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Comparison of Thermal Properties in Composites of PHB Using Rice Husk Ash or Talc as Filler

Abstract This study has been conducted in order to use rationally rice husk ash (RHA) since it is one of the most abundant industrial waste. With the purpose of comparing fillers, composites of PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate) with RHA and PHB with talc (TA), were obtain by twin-screw extrusion and injection molding techniques and characterized by the use of Laser Flash Method and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC). The thermal conductivity value displayed by PHB polymer was 0.419 W∙m-1∙K-1 while the composites values were slightly higher, due to the increasing content of the filler. PHB/RHA composite showed maximum values 0.456 W∙m-1∙K-1 and, PHB/TA composite was 0.492 W∙m-1∙K-1. As regards to the DSC it can be stated that the presence of filler does not change significantly the thermogram curve, as evidenced by the endothermic peak at 172.96°C, 173.61°C and 171.65°C to PHB, PHB/RHA (85/15) and PHB/TA (85/15), respectively. Fillers from waste contribute to sustainable materials.

Keywords PHB (polyhydroxybutyrate), Composites, Rice Husk Ash, Talc, Laser Flash Method.

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Validation for Smartphone Applications for Measuring Noise

Abstract Nowadays, the number of applications developed for smartphones is quite huge and, among them, we can find applications dedicated to measure acoustics parameters. In this work, we have done a comparison between eight of these applications and a reference sound level meter, obtaining sound pressure level, directivity and reverberation time at different frequencies and levels. The results can help to choose the most precise application according to the required magnitudes for acoustics studies.

Keywords Applets, Noise Applications, Smartphones.

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The Creation of the Landscape Planning and Design Projects with Idea Developed for Diversity

Abstract Recent years the relationship between the nature and human has become disappearing. Because people are forced to live in urban areas which are concrete and metal stack in today’s. So city people have demanded to return the areas belonging to them from time to time where resembling the natural environment. In this regard urban parks are important for the city and the city people. This study focuses on the preferred qualities of area in terms of both environmental affordances and design characteristics in urban park and recreation area. The key concern of this study is to explore the concepts of the projects and reflects of this to the projects and area. The study was conducted in the Bartın City. The study area planned and designed in different views of the planners/designers. After studies three projects prepared in different concepts were selected for example. The research instrument was a set of landscape plan and design projects including survey, spot, master, vegetable, construction, sketch and perspective elements. The study covers the importance of planners/designers’ preference in landscape plan and design studios. Landscape structure and functions have been examined within the context of the entire natural and cultural dynamics in the study. The project phases involved setting thematic strategic objectives, conceptualizing spatial development scenario along with action plans and delivering model proposals. In compliance with protection and management of natural and cultural landscapes, the project introduces natural and cultural asset-based approach to form local sustainable development framework. Each development idea has been tested with others and the sustainability of natural-cultural landscapes, and subsequently spatial interaction analysis scrutinized. In conclusion, this paper outlined the area development strategy project alongside the author’s point of view with a focus on concepts. Finally, the results were used to create a set of useful recommendations to help urban people and designers create more livable spaces in urban areas.

Keywords Urban open areas, urban parks, landscape planning, landscape design, recreation.

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Deformation Analysis of Autobody Panels

Abstract This paper describes experimental results for the forming limits for steel sheet DC 04 (KOHAL 200) and the deformation states in large-sized autobody panels of the Skoda, with examples of the application of these results to the analysis of an actual press forming operation. The forming-limit diagram (FLD) was determined using the in-plane stretching method. The deformation states in the large-sized autobody panels were marked on the FLD and compared with the limit strains of the sheet metal tested. Since successful forming requires the right combination of material, lubrication, sheet-blank configuration and die design, the trial-and-error method was used to determine the proper forming parameters. By analysing the strain patterns, it was possible to obtain the changes needed to convert an unfavourable stamping into a favourable one.

Keywords Autobody stampings, forming limit diagram, major- and minor-strain.

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Degradation Mechanisms of Organic Solar Cells

Abstract Organic solar cells are of majority concern for future electrical power generation because of low-cost, lightweight and flexible production. Stability and degradation is of paramount importance in organic solar cells. Depending on the significance of air exposure, the degradation of organic solar cells can be divided into extrinsic and intrinsic degradation. Organic solar cells often suffer from degradation in oxygen and water. Intrusion of oxygen and water are the principal causes of extrinsic degradation. In this study, we discuss the recent developments of organic solar cell materials and summarize recent improve of organic solar cells with emphasis on the extrinsic degradation that specially related to oxygen and water.

Keywords Degradation, Organic Solar Cell, Stability.

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Computationally efficient distortion prediction in Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing

Abstract This work addresses the analysis and development of computationally efficient distortion prediction numerical methodologies applicable to powder bed based selective laser melting (SLM) process. Initially, state of the art of simplified distortion modelling methodologies based on finite element (FE) models is introduced. Existing methodologies are described in terms of complexity and applicability to SLM process.

The methodology known as inherent shrinkage, previously developed for multipass welding processes, is applied to predict SLM process induced distortion in Inco 718 testing geometry (cantilever). An assessment about predictive capability of this simplified model based on correlation between numerical results and experimental measurements is performed. Experimental distortions are measured after cutting of base plate connected supports. Initially, the influence of meshing, layer activation and equivalent thermal loads is investigated in terms of prediction capability and computational cost. Subsequently, isotropic and non-isotropic thermal expansion coefficients (α) are considered in the FE-model definition. Results demonstrate that it is feasible to accurately predict the distortion induced by different scanning strategies (chess-board pattern, transversal stripes and longitudinal stripes) in short times. Current developments entail a cost-effective alternative for controlling and reducing distortions in SLM parts.

Keywords Additive manufacturing, distortion prediction, inherent shrinkage, numerical modeling, powder bed fusion.

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Fabrication of Low Cost Prosthetic Arm with Foamed Fingers

AbstractA lot of research is happening in medical field in the area of prosthesis with a aim to reduce the cost and at the same time, the artificial limb being effective. The current work concentrates on the area of prosthetic hand. Most of the prosthetic arms currently available are motor driven and costly. There are non-powered prosthetic hand also but involve the use of elastic band on solid fingers which make the arms heavy. The current work is aimed at overcoming these difficulties by the use of EPE foamed fingers which are driven actuated by a tendon by the gesture of palm while the foam provides the necessary spring back. CAD models are prepared using proe while 3D printing is used for fabricating most of the arm. EPE is used as foam material while PLA and Acrylic are used for outer structure.

Keywords 3D printing, EPE foamed finger, PLA, prosthetic hand, tendon driven.

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Experimental and Modeling Density and Surface Tension of 1, 2-Dimethylbenzene with Alkanes at 298.15K

Abstract Experimental density and surface tension of 1,2-dimethylbenzene with octane, nonane and decane have been obtained at 298.15K and atmospheric pressure. This work increases the available experimental information regarding this kind of mixtures useful in the fuel field. The excess molar volume and the surface tension deviation have been correlated by Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Besides, density of binary systems has been predicted and correlated with Nitta-Chao group contribution and ERAS models respectively while the surface tension deviation have been predicted with HSIS and HSEG and SE models. Finally, a comparison about the behavior of excess volume molar and deviation surface tension between dimethylbenzene isomers and alkanes is presented.

Keywords density, surface tension, 1,2-dimethylbenzene, alkane.

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Lips Identification using Fuzzy Based Triangular Feature Set

Abstract Biometric traits are now highly explored by researchers to identify a person. This paper presents a biometric identifier, namely lips for personal identification. A Fuzzy based on Triangle Feature Set is applied to the lips verification system. This method demonstrates that the minutiae template of an user may be used to reconstruct the lips image of Computer Education and Training Society (CETS) students and staff members. The performance of the method is also reported. This paper proposes the concept of fixed number of triangles in the lips. It improves the performance of the method.

Keywords Distortion, Lip, Matching, Orientation, Verification.

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Reliability Evaluation of Multicommodity Limited-Flow Networks with Budget Constraints

AbstractMany real-world systems such as manufacturing systems, transportation systems and logistics/distribution systems that play important roles in our modern society can be regarded as multicommodity flow networks whose arcs have independent, finite and multi-valued random capacities. Such a flow network is a multistate system with multistate components and its reliability for level (d;c), i.e., the probability that k different types of commodity can be transmitted from the source node to the sink node such that the demand level is satisfied and the total transmission cost is less than or equal to c, can be evaluated in terms of minimal path vectors to level (d;c) (named (d;c)-MPs here). The main objective of this paper is to present an intuitive algorithm to generate all (d;c)-MPs of such a flow network for each level (d;c) in terms of minimal pathsets. Two examples are given to illustrate how all (d;c)-MPs are generated by our algorithm and then the reliability of one example is computed.

Keywords Reliability, limited-flow network, multicommodity, multistate system, (d;c)-MP.

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Investigation of the failure behavior of metal inserts embedded in CFRP under cyclic loading

Abstract Due to their outstanding specific mechanical properties, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP) exhibit a high application potential for lightweight structures. With respect to multi-material design, CFRP parts have to be joined to other components such like loadframes or to functional elements. Drilling of structural CFRP parts to be joined can be avoided by the use of embedded metal elements, so called inserts. In this contribution, two different variants of inserts featuring different geometries of the load carrying base plate are embedded in the CFRP during preforming. The parts are finally consolidated by a resin transfer molding (RTM) process. When comparing juvenile, i.e. non-predamaged, specimens in multiple step tests it can be shown, that specimens with optimized insert have higher cyclic strengths. To evaluate the influence of impact damage on the cyclic strength the two component variants were predamaged by various impact energies. Afterwards, the specimens with optimized insert still showed significantly higher cyclic strengths, but it also became evident that the damage tolerance of the reference insert geometry was higher. The reference also endured higher impact energies without complete failure and the influence on the performance was lower.

Another aim of this study was to derive lifetime predictions for both component variants using multiple step tests and to validate with experimentally determined S-N curves. According to the reference insert, a lifetime prediction was not possible due to different damage mechanisms occurred under quasi-static and cyclic loads. The lifetime predictions for the specimens with optimized insert based on a cyclic force-displacement curve show only a partial correlation for very high loads when the insert is pulled out of the laminate.

Keywords cyclic loading, composite, joining, multiple step test, S-N curve.

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Research on Dynamic Evacuation Simulations in large-scale shopping centers

Abstract This study chose a large-scale shopping center housed in a typical warehouse-style commercial building as an example to review its fire accident history and to conduct an on-site questionnaire survey to determine the features and conditions of the fire and smoke hazards when this type of building is on fire. The features of the distribution of people and the characteristics of their behavior and responses from the literature were quantified into parameters and inputted into the evacuation model. The FDS+Evac computer simulation software of the performance-based analysis was used to dynamically simulate the amount of time required for evacuation. The present study chose two fire scenarios and, depending on the activation of the fire safety equipment, each scenario was further divided into four more scenarios for discussing their impacts on evacuation. Hazardous impacts from the height of the smoke layer, fire temperature, CO concentration, visibility, and radiation intensity on people during evacuation were simulated and analyzed. The present study further verified and validated the hazardous conditions for the shoppers using the FED value and explored the approach for helping people who need assistance during shopping center evacuation at the time of occurrence. The results show that when fire equipment (smoke exhausts and automatic fire sprinklers) is activated, the majority of people can be evacuated safely. If only one of the equipment is activated, then the activation of the smoke exhaust would work better than the automatic fire sprinklers in protecting people’s lives. For warehouse store fire safety, it is critical to plan the evacuation routes according to the local conditions and enhance guidance for people who need assistance in an emergency evacuation.

Keywords Warehouse-style commercial buildings, large-scale shopping centers, fire accident simulation, FDS+Evac, Dynamic evacuation simulation.

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To Establish Evacuation Decision-making Selection Modes of Aboriginal Tribes in Debris Flow Remote Areas from Disasters via Community-based Disaster Management

Abstract In this study I try to utilize the concepts of “environmental vulnerability” and “evacuation behaviors among minority groups” and apply the evacuation selection mode generated from the public hazard perception to geographic information system, and analyze movement paths of residents during after disaster by using composite technology so that I can modify the suggested service scope and capacity of evacuation sites in the regions investigated in this study and provide minority groups with optimal selection mode.

Keywords Debris flow, Secondary disasters, Evacuation behavior, Minority groups, Earthquake, Geographic Information System (GIS), Disaster risk reduction.

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A Study for the Performance Evaluation of Volunteer Teams-The Case of Evaluation for the Affecting Factors of Public Fire Education Conducted by Women Disaster Prevention Advocate in Taiwan

Abstract Public fire education work is one of the Fire Agency’s important fire prevention services. This paper makes use of a questionnaire designed according to relevant documents and work nature of the Women Disaster Prevention Advocate (WDPA) to investigate the effects of public fire education. Members of WDPA are then surveyed in Taiwan in order to gauge the effectiveness of the existing public fire education factors, and using statistical regression analysis. Results from the WDPA Self-Evaluation analysis are used to rank the most affecting factors on the effects of the public fire education. It is found that self-growth is the most important, next is job-involvement, third is training content, then by followed is job recognition.

Keywords Regression Models, Women Disaster Prevention AdvocateWDPA, Volunteer.

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Computer Aided Detection Method for Ischemic Stroke Using Feature Based Approach

Abstract In this paper we have proposed a Computer Aided Detection (CAD) scheme for the early detection of Ischemic Stroke using Adaptive Region of interest. A number of statistical parameters such as Energy and Entropy will be calculated from the Adaptive Region of interest and these will be compared with the contra-lateral side of the brain.

Keywords Ischemic stroke, Computer aided detection, Adaptive region of interest, image features.

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A new tool for inhalers’ use and adherence monitoring: the Amiko® validation trial

Abstract The lack of adherence to treatment and misuse of inhaled medication are hot topics in asthma and COPD management. Novel electronic monitoring devices are regarded as promising in assessing medication use. The aim of this study was the experimental performance evaluation of an electronic monitoring device (Amiko®) on Ellipta® (GlaxoSmithKline), Spiromax® (Teva Pharmaceutical Industries), and NEXThaler® (Chiesi Farmaceutici). Amiko® introduces a clinically negligible inspiratory flow resistance when added to the tested DPI. It was able to detect the performed inhalation in more than 99% of cases providing also an estimate of the patient’s inspiratory effort with a limited gap across the different devices. All the loading manoeuvres were recorded correctly for each DPI, independently of the orientation of the device, resulting in an accuracy of 100.0%. Similarly, the tool was able to detect the device orientation during the performed inhalation with a mean absolute error inferior than 3.53° for the three DPIs. All the above reported results suggest that Amiko® technology will allow to identify, store and communicate relevant data for adherence improvement and misuse correction. Usability test, efficacy and effectiveness in improving respiratory disease management, need to be explored in clinical research setting and in real life.

Keywords inhaled device, loading, recording, orientation, inspiratory effort.

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Model development of untenable conditions during egress and stochastic evaluation in compartment fires

Abstract This study aimed to develop an “improved simplified two-zone model authentication technology” in order to simulate the time to untenable conditions in compartments less than 200 m2 in area, which include smoke layer temperature, visibility, carbon monoxide concentration, fractional lethal dose, and radiation heat flux. Based on reliability-based design and structure function, this study focuses on constructing “the stochastic model of egress safety/failure in a compartment fire”. Moreover, stochastic parameters and probability distributions were assumed. Random numbers of parameters were generated by Monte Carlo simulation. After several simulations, the failure probability of occupants egress due to one or more than one of the untenable conditions was obtained. After constructing the model, 200 m2 occupants in a ALA PUB disco ballroom located in Taichung, Taiwan were taken as an example. The simulation of polyurethane furniture fire was executed 100 times. The results showed that installation of automatic fire alarm equipments and emergency broadcasting equipments can substantially reduce the untenable conditions and failure probability of occupants egress. Some ideas for fire officers and future studies for fire researchers were also recommended.

Keywords Fractional lethal dose, Radiation heat flux, Reliability-based design, Stochastic model, Structure function, Untenable conditions.

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Matching method of partial shoeprint images based on  PCA-SIFT algorithm

Abstract To improve the accuracy of image matching shoeprint image feature matching method based on PCA-SIFT is proposed. Firstly, feature detection and pre-matching of images are done by using PCA-SIFT (principal component analysis-scale invariant feature transform) algorithm. And then, the correlation coefficient is used as similarity measurement, which can filter image interest points. By this method, the image matching pairs can be obtained. Finally, the RANSAC (random sample consensus) algorithm is used to eliminate the mismatching pairs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm is more robust while maintaining good registration accuracy when analyzing partial shoeprint images in the presence of geometric distortions such as scale and rotation distortions compared with conventional algorithms.

Keywords PCA-SIFT, shoeprint image, image matching, RANSAC.

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Simultaneous esterification and transesterification of andiroba oil using niobium oxide-sulfate as catalyst

Abstract The rising market in biofuels has been encouraging researchers to develop new routes for biodiesel production in order to increase the yields of the process. Heterogeneous acid catalysts represent an alternative to avoid the traditional alkaline pathway for producing alkyl esters from oils with a high content of free fatty acids. In this study, sulfated – niobium oxide catalyst was developed by impregnating Nb2O5 with H2SO4 (0.5 mol/L) and used to carry out simultaneous esterification and transesterification of andiroba (Carapa guianensis) oil with high free fatty acid content (acid value: 33.1 mg KOH/g). Reactions were performed with anhydrous ethanol under different conditions of temperature and molar ratio of oil to ethanol, using the SO42‑/Nb2O5, catalyst at 5% (w/w reaction mixture). The oil conversion was determined by the 1H-NMR spectroscopy method and the maximum conversion of andiroba oil into ethyl esters was 90.9%, which was achieved in a pressurized reactor.

Keywords Acid oil, esterification/transesterification, ethyl esters, free fatty acids, niobium oxide-sulfate.

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