ABSTRACT: The study examined the efficiency of sorghum production in Maharashtra State, India. The technical, allocative and economic efficiencies of farmers producing sorghum were analysed from 100 randomly selected sorghum farmers. The maximum likelihood estimates of the stochastic frontier production function was used for the analysis, and the result revealed that farm size, labour, fertilizer and chemicals were significantly and positively related to sorghum output. The technical efficiency (TE) scores ranged from 0.28-0.94 with a mean TE of 0.67, implying that there is a scope for increasing technical efficiency in sorghum production by 33% in the short-run. The allocative efficiency index ranged from 0.11-0.90 with a mean of 0.54, implying that the average farm has the scope of increasing allocative efficiency by 46% in the short-run. The economic efficiency index ranged from 0.09-0.75 with a mean of 0.37, indicating wide efficiency differential between average farmers and the economically efficient farmers. The result of the stochastic frontier production function analysis showed that the variance parameters that is the sigma squared (ɗ2) and the gamma (ϒ) were statistically significant at 1% level of sorghum production
- Farm size, labour, fertilizer and chemical are the important factors in sorghum production in Maharashtra state
- More than 63 percent farms are operating below the frontier level which indicates the scope for efficiency improvement.
- Overuse of seed was found on sorghum farms
Key words: Technical, Allocative and Economic efficiency, sorghum, Maharashtra,
Effect of Nutrient Management on Grain Yield of Aerobic Rice Under Irrigated Condition During Pre-Kharif Season
Abstract— A field experiment on ‘Effect of nutrient management on grain yield of aerobic rice under irrigated condition during Pre-kharif season’ was conducted at Rice Research Station, Bankura, West Bengal, India during 2011 and 2012, respectively in upland situation of red and laterite areas of West Bengal. The experimental result revealed that grain yield of rice in aerobic situation was not significantly influenced by the irrigation schedules during pre-kharif season. Among the levels of nutrient management practices, highest grain yield (4.42 t ha-1) of aerobic rice [variety: Puspa (IET 17509)] was obtained from the treatment N2 [N1 (N, P2O5, K2O @ 80, 40, 40 kg ha-1) + Vermicompost @ 2.5 t ha-1]. It is the most promising approaches for saving water and labour. This is eco-friendly and environmentally safety. Rice production in aerobically is an important tool to mitigating the global warming i.e. climate change scenario.
Keywords— Aerobic rice, nutrient management, irrigated condition, pre-kharif and eco-safety system
Roles Of Oxidised And Reduced Nitrogen Aerosols On Productivity Of Winter Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Crop
Abstract— In a pot culture (2011), aerosols of oxidized nitrogen (NaNO2) @20kgha-1yr-1 (≈200 ppm), reduced nitrogen (NH4Cl) @10kg-1hayr-1 (≈100 ppm) and distilled water (control) were sprayed (1500 cm3plant-1) weekly at different days after sowing (DAS) to study their impacts on physiology of rice varieties (Bishnuprasad, Kanaklata, Joymati, Jyotiprasad and Mulagavaru). In a field trial (2012), the simulated N-aerosols @ 20 & 40 kg ha-1y-1 of each (1000 cm3m-2) along with a control were misted to population of the rice variety, Kanaklata at four different growth stages viz., germination and tillering (0-30 DAS), maximum tillering, (30-60 DAS), panicle initiation (60-90 DAS) and reproductive development (90-120 DAS). In both pot and field experiments, the N- aerosols brought about wide differences in net photosynthesis rates, nitrate reductase activity, nitrogen use efficiency (NUE), membrane permeability in the crop. The aerosols with lower doses at earlier growth stages influenced NUE and economic yield of the crop varieties. Mechanisms of altering membrane permeability either by depletion of Ca2+, or acceleration of peroxidase activity of cell in presence of the aerosols have been elucidated.
Keywords— atmospheric pollution, rice, aerosols, ammonia, cations, nitrite, nitrogen, photosynthesis, membrane, permeability, peroxidase.
Abstract— Maintenance of market quality from quality loss is vital importance for the success of horticultural industry. After harvest, many horticultural products are susceptible to deterioration and it is necessary to cool them as quick as possible. The process of precooling is the removal of field heat which arrest the deteriorative and senescence processes so as to maintain a high level of quality that ensures customer satisfaction. Different precooling methods employed to cool down the produce includes room cooling, forced-air cooling, hydro-cooling, package icing, vacuum cooling and cryogenic cooling. These methods use different modes and media for their function. Room cooling and forced-air cooling use cold air, hydro-cooling makes use of cold water, package iced products have direct contact with ice, vacuum cooling employs the evaporation of water and cryogenic cooling involves liquid nitrogen. Fruits are normally cooled with cold air, although stone fruits benefit from hydrocooling, while vegetables and flowers may be cooled by employing any of the above-mentioned cooling methods, depending on the physiology and market requirements. So, it has been pointed out that precooling is the most important of all the operations used in the maintenance of any desirable, fresh and saleable produce.
Keywords— Post harvest, Precooling, Quality loss, Shelf life, Temperature.
Abstract— Thirty genotypes of mango screened against anthracnose (Colletotrichum gloeiosporioides ) under natural field condition during 2011-12 and 2012-13, only one genotype Keitt showed resistant reaction whereas, Himsagar and Ostin showed moderate resistant. Gajiria, Kishan bhog, Malvia bhog Kent Lily and Maya showed moderate susceptible reaction. The genotypes viz., Mahmood Vikarabad, Konkan Ruchi, Arka Anmol, Mankurad, Madhukrupa, Alphonso, Ambica and Kesar showed susceptible reaction whereas, Mallika, Vellai Kolumban, Ratna, Goa Mankur,, Totapuri X Vanaraj, Arka Neelkiran, Palmer , Muvandan, Ajod Sindurio , Karel (Reva), Kensington, Bombai and Sensation exhibited highly susceptible reaction against anthracnose of mango.
Keywords— Mango, Varietal screening, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Anthracnose.
Leaf analysis status of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in acid lime (Citrus aurantifolia SWINGLE) through induction of water stress and application of growth regulators
Abstract— Application of growth regulators and induction of water stress at different growth stages is known to improve yield in many of the fruit crops. An experiment was carried out at Horticultural College and Research Institute, Periyakulam during the year 2006-2008 on five year old trees of acid lime cv. PKM 1 in the main and off seasons of a year. The trees were subjected to soil water stress conditions at two levels (30 days and 45 days) along with spraying of growth regulators viz., (CCC 500 ppm, ascorbic acid 50 ppm and gibberellic acid (GA3)10 ppm. Soil water stress was taken as one factor and growth regulator was another executed following factorial randomized block design. In general, nitrogen content of leaves was more in main season than off season. Three way interaction between stress, growth regulators and stages of tree growth revealed that the combination S1C2L1 (water stress for 30 days + foliar spraying of ascorbic acid 50 ppm concentration at vegetative stage) registered the highest nitrogen content (2.97 and 2.92 per cent) in the main season of the year 2006 – 07 and 2007 – 08. The phosphorus and potassium content of leaves of acid lime also found significant irrespective of seasons. The combination S1C2 (30 days water stress along with foliar application of ascorbic acid 50 ppm concentration) recorded the highest phosphorus content in the main (0.19 and 0.18 per cent) and off (0.19 and 0.16 per cent) season during the year 2007 – 08 and 2006 – 07 respectively. The interaction between stress, growth regulators and stages of tree growth showed that the combination S1C2L1 recorded the highest potassium content (2.37 and 2.35 per cent) in the main and off season of the year 2006 – 07 and 2007 – 08. It was followed in the combinations S2C3L1 (2.30 and 2.27 per cent) and S1C1L1 (2.13 and 2.12 per cent) in the year 2006 – 07 and 2007 – 08 respectively.
Keywords— Acid lime, water stress, growth regulators and nutrient uptake.