Abstract—Subclinical Hypothyroidism is a much more common disorder with a world-wide occurrence as compared to overt Hypothyroidism. Overt Hypothyroidism is associated with abnormalities of lipid metabolism, but the significance of dyslipidemia in subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH) remains controversial.
Aims: To compare the lipid profile between subclinical hypothyroid patients & healthy controls (age & sex matched) so as to determine any association between lipid profile & subclinical hypothyroidism.
Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), free T3, free T4, anti thyroperoxidase (TPO) antibodies, total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein(HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, Very low density lipoprotein (VLDL) cholesterol, serum triglycerides were measured in 50 patients with subclinical hypothyroidism and 50 age- and sex-matched Euthyroid controls after an overnight fasting.
Results: Mean serum triglycerides (TG) and very low-density cholesterol (VLDL) were significantly higher in patients with SCH than controls (P < 0.05). No association was found between serum total cholesterol, high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol and SCH.
Conclusions: Dyslipidemia is more common in SCH compared to controls. High serum triglycerides and VLDL were observed in patients with SCH.
Keywords: Subclinical hypothyroidism (SCH), TSH, Lipid Profile.
Abstract—Hydatid cyst disease is a zoonotic disease caused by the larval stage of Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus Multilocularis. In human beings, apart from involving the liver and lungs commonly, it also affects other organs like brain, kidney and spleen. Rupture of Hydatid cyst into abdominal cavity causes disseminated abdominal hydatidosis which is a rare complication. Here this rare case was presenting as a 48 years old female patient of disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis. Disseminated abdominal hydatidosis occurs secondary to traumatic or surgical rupture of a hepatic cyst. Ultrasonography or Computed Tomography findings are helpful in making a definitive diagnosis. For localized hydatid cysts in liver or lungs, the management of choice is preferably surgical while the treatment for disseminated intra-abdominal hydatidosis remains medical. Albendazole is the treatment of choice for disseminated abdominal hydatidosis.
Keywords: Zoonotic, Disseminated, Abdominal, Hydatid Cyst
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) Associated Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) in Patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) Infection: A Case Report
Abstract—Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy (PML) is seen mostly in advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In some individuals, especially those with very low CD4+ counts, worsening of PML or new-onset PML can be observed after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). A case of IRIS associated PML is reported here which is much more rare as compared to PML in HIV patients unrelated to HAART. This is thought to be secondary to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS is defined as a paradoxical deterioration of a previously existing infection which is related to the immune system recovery. It is suggested to occur due to an imbalance of CD8+/CD4+ T cells. So in HIV cases with low CD4 counts and if one is on HAART then should be further investigated for IRIS and PML.
Keywords: PML, HIV, HAART, IRIS
Abstract—3D ultrasound (3-dimensional sonography) when combined with sonosalpingography, it provides detailed information regarding internal and external contours of the uterus, without the need for radiation contrast material or surgical intervention. This study was done because of the need of such diagnostic modality that is highly accurate as well as least invasive. A descriptive study was conducted on 50 infertile females to assess the diagnostic value of 3-dimensional SHG in reference of diagnostic hystero-laproscopy (DHL) assuming as gold standard. It was found that sensitivity of 3-dimensional SHG reasons of tubal patency, ovarian pathology and uterine cavity was found 97.6%, 90.91% and 71.43% respectively. And diagnostic accuracy of 3-dimensional SHG in reference of DHL for tubal patency, ovarian pathology and for uterine cavity was found 96%, 92% and 96% respectively. So it can be concluded from present study that 3-Dimensional sonohysterography is an efficient tool to assess women with infertility. Its sensitivity, specificity, and diagnostic accuracy is comparable to hysterolaproscopy.
Keywords: Infertility, 3-dimensional SHG (SHG), Diagnostic Hystero-Laproscopy (DHL), Diagnostic Values.
Medial Temporal Lobe Encephalitis associated to Chikungunya Virus Infection: A Case Report during First Epidemic in Americas
Abstract—Chikunguniya can be associated with encephalitis which is a rare complication of chikunguniya. Such a rare case was attended at National University Hospital (Hondura) in August 2015, which was studied in detail. A 64 years, Honduran patient was admitted during the convalescent period of an acute febrile illness with arthralgias one month prior. Two weeks later, he developed a severe inability to form new memories disorientation to date and time; forgetting family member´s names and daily routines. The patient exhibited spontaneous crying and sadness. Premorbid cognitive, behavioral and functional abilities were normal. Patient was evaluated and investigated. On investigation Chikungunya IgM antibodies were positive and on Brain MRI revealed predominantly right medial temporal lobe hyperintensities in Diffusion weighed images; also seen in FLAIR sequences. Patient was confirmed as Chikunguniya case associated with medial temporal lobe encephalitis. So it is suggested that patients presenting with a rapidly evolving amnestic syndrome after an acute febrile illness with polyarthralgias in an endemic region should be tested for the Chikungunya virus. More cases must be described and studied, however, to better characterize this condition.
Keywords: Temporal Lobe, Encephalitis, Chikungunya.