Abstract— Issue of family planning has gained attention due to its importance in decision-making about population growth and areas related to the overall socio-economic development of a nation. Social marketing, on the other hand, has gained popularity in addressing issues related to change in social behaviors such as family planning, and particular to developing nations like Ethiopia. This study makes an attempt to relate the idea of social marketing, as an approach of bringing attitudinal changes in the behaviors of individuals toward the concept of family planning and usage of contraceptives. Specifically, the objectives include an examination of the role of social marketing-mix in family planning experiences and to compare the attitudes of men and women toward family planning.
In order to gather the primary data, structured (draft) questionnaire was prepared and tested through a pilot-study (with 35 respondents). The final survey comprises 150 respondents, selected accidently by having a quota of 50% for each gender. Factor and reliability analysis were used to test the validity and reliability of the scale items. The result revealed that attitude towards family planning and contraceptives usage found being highly affected by the awareness and responsibility towards society/service usage. Therefore, as the marketing activities like promotion increases, awareness is expected to increase, which finally determines favorable attitude towards family planning products/techniques (e.g., contraceptives).
Keywords: Social Marketing, Family Planning, Contraceptives, Attitudes, Behavior, Ethiopia.
Abstract— Non-fermenters are aerobic non-spore forming Gram-negative bacilli that either incapable of catabolized carbohydrates as a source of energy or degrade them via oxidative rather than fermentative metabolic pathways. In the group of non-fermenters Pseudomonas aeruginosa is eminent pathogen followed by Acinetobacter baumanni. Both of these organisms are reported for their intrinsic resistance against antibiotics and their ability to acquire gens that encode resistance. Resistant against quinolones like ciprofloxacin is common against Gram’s negative non-fermenters. For most of the mechanism of resistant in both of these organisms against quinolone, is the production of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, mutations in topoisomerases, up-regulation of efflux pumps and presence of plasmid mediated qnr genes. In this study, during the study period total 94 non-fermenters were isolated from 378 numbers of different clinical specimens. Out of 94; 21 isolates were found resistant against quinolone antibiotics like ciprofloxacin-5 µg, levofloxacin-5 µg , norfloxacin-10 µg, which were subjected for PCR studies to detect resistant genes, only five (23.81%) isolates were found to be associated with aac(6’)-lb-cr and two (9.52%) were found positive for carrying qnrD gense as additional with aac(6’)-lb-cr genes. Organisms that processed qnrD and aac(6’)-lb-cr gens were, Pseudomona aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanni , Alcaligenes faecalis , Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Pseudomonas sp.
Key word: Non-fermenters, Quinolone resistant, PCR studies, QNR, aac(6’)-Ib-cr.
Abstract—Government of India launched the National Rural Health Mission (NRHM) on 12th April 2005, to provide accessible, accountable, affordable, effective and reliable primary health care, especially to the poor and vulnerable sections of the population. And ASHAs are a ‘bridge’ or an interface between the community and health service outlets. NHM set some standard for ASHAs. So this study was conducted to assess the knowledge of ASHA of Jaipur city. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 172 ASHAs working in Jaipur city. In the present study, all the ASHAs know their role about Immunization, Ante Natal Care and to inform Sub Centre/PHC/CHC about births and deaths in the village & outbreak of health problem/disease in the community. The majority (>80%) ASHAs knew their role in Post Natal Check-up, counseling women for Birth preparedness, safe delivery, exclusive Breast feeding, complementary feeding, Personal hygiene and sanitation. Promoting hand washing after toilet and before food handling was known to 153 (88.95%) of ASHAs. It was concluded from the study that majority of ASHAs know their role and details of their practices in all expected field except regarding basic sanitation and hygiene. Knowledge of ASHAs regarding their role about basic sanitation and hygiene of community i.e. to 19.19% of ASHAs only. Likewise regarding promote construction of toilet was also known to only 17.44% of ASHAs. Even only 37.79% of ASHAs knew about immunization may be given in mild fever.
Key words: ASHA, Knowledge Status of ASHA.
Comparative Outcome of Basi-Cervical Neck of Femur Fractures Fixed Using DHS with and without De-Rotation Screw
Abstract— Basicervical fracture necks of femur are intermediate between femur neck fracture and intertrochantric fracture. These fractures having axial and rotational instability are traditionally being treated with DHS. DHS allow solid fixation in two planes only, additional derotation screw allow stability in third plane also.
Objective: To compare outcome of basicervical fracture neck of femur treated with and without derotation screw.
Material and Methods: Patients were divided in two groups i.e. group ‘A’ and group ‘B’ each group having 30 patients. Group ‘A’ patients were treated with DHS with derotation screw and group ‘B’ patients with DHS alone.
Results: At 12 months postoperatively patients were clinically and radiologically evaluated. All frcture were united in Group ‘A’ within an average period of 12.5 week while three patients (10%) ended up in non-union in group ‘B’. Mean sliding distance in group ‘A’ was 5.6 mm while it was 6.2 mm in group ‘B’. Mean shortening of limb was 3.8 mm in group ‘A’ which was 4.3 mm in group ‘B’. In group ‘A’ there was no major displacement between the fracture but in group B there was >3 mm displacement in five patients (16.66%). According to modified Harris hip score in group ‘A’ 26 patients (86.66%) had excellent results, two patients(6.66%)had good results, one patient(3.33%) had fair results and in one patient(3.33%)poor results was obtained.
Conclusions: It can be concluded from study that there were better radiological and clinical outcome in DHS with derotation screw than DHS alone in basicervical fracture neck of femur.
Key words: Basicervical fracture, DHS, Derotation screw.