Abstract— The current study aimed to establish which meteorological conditions have the strongest impact on grapevine yield, sanitary status and berry composition, as well as checking their relative importance in relation to management practices and grapevine variety. Weather data was correlated to yield, sanitary status and grape composition of three varieties (Cabernet-Sauvignon, Merlot and Tannat) under two trellis systems (lyre and vertical shoot positioning), with or without yield control (pruning type and cluster thinning) over four seasons throughout the south of Uruguay. Principal component analysis showed that weather variables explained, respectively, 57.3%, 64.3% and 57.8% of the variance in yield, sanitary status and grape composition within the studied dataset. Hierarchical Clustering grouped years, confirming that the relevance of weather interannual variability was greater than that of genetics and management practices. Yield depended on bunch number, which was determined by rainfall and temperature. Water statuses during the first stage of the growing cycle are determinant for bunch rot infection, as well as thermal and hydric conditions that prevail during maturation. Grape compounds were positively correlated to thermal sum at the beginning of the growing cycle and negatively with high temperatures and water availability in maturation. Our results suggest that the favourable intervals of atmospheric conditions for yield and bunch rot are different from those for berry quality.
Keywords— Berry quality, climate, genotype, viticultural practice, yield components.
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