Physicochemical Characterization of African Aubergine Solanum Aethiopicum Anguivi (Solanaceae) from Northern Cote d’Ivoire
Abstract— Solanum aethiopicum anguivi (Solanaceae) is a common vegetable widely used for food by population in Korhogo, northern Côte d’Ivoire. But this aubergine is not yet soundly utilized. The current study focuses the physico-chemical traits of this aubergine to fit more valorization. From the investigation, the aubergine showed higher moisture (90.73% to 92.71%). Oppositely, lower contents are recorded for crude proteins (1.44% to 1.64%), fats (0.12% to 0.16%), total carbohydrates (5.38% to 6.71%), and so for caloric energy value (28. 36 Kcal/100 g to 34.84 Kcal/100g). Besides, the aubergine is provided with significant fiber content (2.43% to 3.31%) and displayed antioxidants components such as vitamin C (6.25 mg/100 g to 6.74 mg/100g) and polyphenols (55.94 mg/100 g to 66.34 mg/100g). It also presents 0.36% to 0.76% of ash mainly constituted of potassium (4.52% to 5.42% DM), phosphorus (0.82% to 0.97% DM) and other oligoelements as iron (1.42 to 4.81 ppm), manganese (2. 06 to 2.33 ppm), zinc (0.22 to 0.32 ppm), and copper (0.01 to 0.02 ppm). Still, this vegetable records phytate (20.91 to 22.44 mg/100 g) and oxalate (28.69 to 38.83 mg/100 g) as main antinutrients components. Processed before consumption, Solanum aethiopicum anguivi constitutes a significant source of food fibre, natural antioxidant, and mineral elements for local population.
Fraxinus Angustifolia for Planting in Sardinia (Italy) A Case Study of Innovative Agroforestry System
Abstract— The case study reports about the development of a 18 years old Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl. tree plantation located in a representative test site for climate, soil and land use characters, of the agricultural planes of southern Sardinia, Italy. The favourable results about diameter at breast height (DBH) and other tree variables together with high potentiality for many ecosystem services too can identify this Fraxinus angustifolia tree plantation case study as an innovative agroforestry system.
Abstract— Cashew nut shell liquid based termiticides using neem seed oil, karanj seed oil and bhilawan shell liquid, were developed and the effect of formulations on acid value, Iodine value, saponification value and unsaponifiable matter of CNSL termiticides was studied. It was observed that CNSL based termiticides were oil based therefore the acid value, Iodine value, saponification value, unsaponifiable matter, flash point, fire point, refractive index, specific gravity, viscosity and colour properties of CNSL, Neem seed oil, Karanj seed oil and Bhilawan shell liquid were reflected in the termiticide formulations with respect to the temperature.
Abstract— β-1,3 glucanases are semi-constitutive hydrolytic enzymes that can degrade glucan molecules embedded in the cell wall components of cereals and some species of fungi resulted in production of D-glucose. This enzyme has a great potential and interest in biotechnology, agricultural and also industrial field. However, there is little reports on the production of β-1,3 glucanase by Penicillium oxalicum. Therefore, the cultural conditions which stimulate in vitro production of β-1,3 glucanase enzyme by P. oxalicum T3.3 and characterization of β-1,3 glucanase enzyme activity were determined.Various parameters such as different types of carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH medium, agitation speed and surfactants were investigated. The optimization was carried out by varying and optimizing one variable at a time. The highest production of β-1,3 glucanase activity of 84.73 U/mL was obtained using seaweed Undaria pinnatifida as substrate at concentration of 1% (w/v), peptone and yeast extract as nitrogen source at 0.3% and 0.2% respectively, initial medium pH 5, agitation speed at 200 rpm and with addition of sodium dodecyl sulfate as surfactant. Under these conditions, β-1,3 glucanase activity increased by 38.6%. Enzyme characterization was also performed which indicated that this enzyme is thermostable and showed optimum activity at 50°C, pH 5 and can retained its activity around 80% up to 4 h at this condition.The optimization of β-1,3 glucanase production by P.oxalicum required adjustment of different types of carbon and nitrogen sources, initial pH medium, agitation speed and surfactants. This enzyme characterization has revealed its great potential towards detergent, beer and food fermentation industries whose manufacturing conditions are largely acidic.
Synergistic Effects of Diazotrophic Phosphate Solubilizing Azotobacter chroococcum and AM Fungus Glomus mosseae on Yield Improvement in Finger Millet (Eleusine Coracana (L.) Gaertn.)
Abstract—Field experiments were conducted to study the response of finger millet Eleusine Coracana (L.) Gaertn. to combined inoculation with the P-solubilizing diazotrophic Azotobacter chroococcum (DT) isolated from the rhizosphere of finger millet and the P-mobilizing Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungus Glomus mosseae under graded levels of N & P fertilizers (100, 75 and 50 percent).The inoculated seedlings were transplanted to the laid out plots (RCBD) with red sandy loam soil having medium levels of NPK and OC. The combined inoculation resulted in significant increase in yield over all the other treatments with 31.00, 27.99 and 18.10 percent grain yield and 36.69, 33.55 and 15.01 percent straw yield respectively in presence of 100, 75 and 50 percent N and P fertilizers in comparison with uninoculated control indicating efficient N supplementation and P- solubilization by A. chroococcum and P-mobilization by the AM fungus. The results indicated that 25-50 percent of N and P fertilizers can be curtailed in presence of combined inoculants, saving money without decrease in the yield performance of finger millet. The combination of these inoculants can be included as one of the important agronomic inputs in finger millet cultivation both under subsistence and affluent farming systems.