IJOEAR: April 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-4, April 2020

Nematophagous Fungi: A Biological Agent for Regulation of Plant Parasitic Nematodes

Abstract The occurrence of plant-parasitic nematodes amongst farmers around the globe is a major concern. Farmers also turn to organic pesticides as an additional method to combat pests and diseases. Nematicides are widely available and of significant toxicity in the natural environment, for example, Aldicarb (Temik). Meanwhile, one of the major components of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) is the biological control using other organisms. Many microorganisms predate nematodes, but only handfuls are used for commercial purposes. In addition, the success of a nematode check is strengthened by a combination of two or more biocontrol agents. Fungi can be an efficacious biocontrol agent in particular, and can be feasibly obtained on a large scale. This review would include an outline of the different biomonitoring processes of technological development, but more on the morphological and biochemical dimensions and interactions of nematophagous fungi must be made available. This analysis will contribute to more nematodes and fungal biodiversity resources.

Keywords— Plant-parasitic nematodes, Biocontrol agent, Integrated pest management (IPM), Nematophagous fungi, Nematicides.

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Sorghum Yield Under the Canopies of Faidherbia Albida (Delile) A.Chev and Cordia africana Lam Parkland Trees in Fedis District, Eastern Ethiopia

Abstract Among several agroforestry practices in the east Hararghe of Ethiopia, Parkland agroforestry practices are common. However, the effect of tree species on the grain yield and above ground biomass of Sorghum has not scientifically quantified in the study area. Therefore, the study was conducted to investigating the effect of parkland trees on the grain yield and above ground biomass of Sorghum at Fedis District, Oromia, Ethiopia. Six isolated and nearly similar F. albida and C. africana trees of each species growing on similar site conditions were selected and the canopy coverage of each tree was divided into four radial transects. Three plots from the tree trunk were established for assessing the sorghum yields and above ground biomass. Sorghum yield and biomass samples from three horizontal distances: 2.5m, 5.0m and 25m were collected for analysis of Sorghum yield and biomass .The result revealed that sorghum grain yield were significantly (p<0.05) higher under the tree canopies than open field that means its higher by 2089.51 and 1789.53 kg /ha under F. albida and C. africana respectively at the distance of 2.5m and these values decreased to 1459.40 and 1266.01 kg /ha under F. albida and C. africana respectively, at the distance of 25m. The mean biomass recorded at three different distances from the two tree trunks, were not differently significant statistically (p >0.05). The research finding showed that trees have positive relation with grain yield and above ground biomass of sorghum. Hence, the growing of Faidherbia albida and Cordia africana trees on small holder farms improve crop productivity for improvement of this Parkland agroforestry system.

Keywords Fedis District, Parkland Agroforestry, Canopy cover, sorghum yield, open field.

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Growth Rate of Area, Production and Productivity of Sugarcane Crop in India

Abstract Sugarcane is an important commercial crop of India. It plays a crucial role for overall socio-economic development of farming community. India ranks second in production of sugarcane after Brazil. In India about 4.73-million-hectare land is occupied by sugarcane crop. Based on the importance of sugarcane crop, present study was conducted to know growth rate of area, production and yield of sugarcane in India and performance of sugarcane crop in major sugarcane producing states of India. The study was based on secondary source of data. Simple statistical tools like compound annual growth rate, percentage methods were used in this study. The study reveals that compound annual growth rate in case of area, production and yield showing a positive sign. The area under sugarcane cultivation is reported an increase of 5.63 percent in a duration of thirty years between 1985 and 2015and the sugarcane production was increased by 7.40 percent in the same period. The area and production of crop is showing a fluctuating trend because there are many factors which is responsible sugarcane cultivation like monsoon conditions, government price polices etc.

Keywords Compound annual growth rate, Production, Sugarcane, Trends.

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Composting of floral waste by using indigenously isolated microbial consortium: An approach towards the Environment sustainability and waste management

Abstract In India huge number of flowers are offered in temple creating a large amount of flower waste. The temple waste is released in the water bodies or dumped at the available places of land which creates severe environmental pollution and health hazards. Floral waste is biodegradable and contains elements required for growth of microorganisms. The present study focused on the use of Temple floral waste extract for preparation of microbial nutrient media in order to cultivate bacteria (pH7.4) and fungi (pH 5.4). Soil sample was used for screening of microorganisms capable of degrading the floral waste. Thus, in the present study instead of using conventional microbial media we have used the flower waste media to develop microbial consortium for degradation of floral waste. On the basis of capability to produce variety of hydrolytic enzymes two sets of consortia were developed and tested for development of compost as against the control without the microbial consortia. Physicochemical analysis of mature compost revealed that floral waste compost prepared by using the microbial consortium is enriched with the Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Calcium and Magnesium. The mature compost developed using the microbial consortia has the potential to support the growth of tomato plants. This method is cost effective as well as pollution free. Thus, it can be promoted as potential mechanism to maintain the environmental sustainability at wider scales.

Keywords— Compost, Floral waste agar media, Microbial consortia, Temple waste.

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Trichoderma harzianum Enriched Vertical Column Enhances Black Pepper Growth

Abstract The method of pepper cultivation with vertical columns is more efficient and effective because it can be planted with more pepper cuttings compared to the conventional method with only one plant per stake so that the productivity of the plant is higher. The application of Trichoderma harzianum in the vertical column can increase pepper growth. The results of this study indicate that there is an increase in plant height, number of leaves, number of nodes, and number of lateral fruiting branches by applying Trichoderma 1×109/ml in the vertical column. Statistically, the interaction of column media and the addition of Trichoderma shows a significant difference in plant height. Trichoderma can increase nutrient uptake and act as an antagonist for plant pathogens. This microbe is able to dissolve phosphates and certain types of soil minerals. Consequently, the strain effectively increases the growth of pepper. It is important to maintain the suitability of the Trichoderma environment around the pepper so that the microbes continue to survive and provide benefits for plant growth in the long term.

Keywords Organic material, Black pepper, Vertical column, Trichoderma harzianum.

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