Standardization of the Appropriate Doses of GA3 and Ag-Nanoparticle in Green Gram for Quality Seed Production
Abstract— One of the most important pulse crops in India is green gram (Vigna radiata L.). Pre-sowing seed priming is a promising strategy to provide value-added solutions that influence the yield and quality of the seed. For selecting the appropriate doses of Ag-nanoparticle and GA3, three doses were taken for each chemical and eight genotypes of green gram were selected. The doses of Ag-nanoparticle were 10 ppm, 20 ppm and 50 ppm and for GA3 50 ppm, 100 ppm, 150 ppm. Eight genotypes of green gram were soaked with three doses each of GA3 and Ag-nanoparticle solution for 6 hours. The laboratory experiment was conducted in seed testing laboratory, BCKV, West Bengal during 2019. Germination percentage and vigor were observed to determine the changes in seed quality after priming with different doses GA3 and Ag-Nanoparticle. While considering treatments over genotypes for GA3, significantly highest germination percentage (99.16) and vigour index (2017.937) were observed when it was primed with 50 ppm GA3. In case of Ag-nanoparticle significantly highest germination percentage (99.31) and vigour index (2102.632) were recorded for 20 ppm, when the average was made over genotypes. So, Ag-Nanoparticle @ 20 ppm and GA3 @ 50 ppm were proved to be appropriate dose in green gram for quality seed production.
Keywords— Green gram, Ag-Nanoparticle, GA3, Seed priming.
Abstract— The conditioning in a greenhouse is one of the efforts in the development of biotechnology-based plant products, thus enabling the growth of a plant to be controlled. In the current era of the industrial revolution 4.0, control technology leads to the use of information and communication technology. Internet of Things based devices can be used to build control systems. One of the most popular IoT devices today is the ESP8266, a microcontroller module that can connect to WiFi and TCP / IP. In the other side, the abundant sunlight is a potential use as an alternative sources of electrical energy to conditioning of greenhouse. In this research, the development of the solar energy as source of power of electrical energy in greenhouses and contolled using internet of thing is the main problem.
Keywords— greenhouse, internet of things, solar energy, conditioning, control.
Socio-Economic Determinants of the Adoption of Improved Maize Varieties by Farmers in Shongom Local Government Area of Gombe State
Abstract— This study was designed to determine the socio-economic determinants of the adoption of improved maize varieties by farmers in Shongom Local Government Area of Gombe State, Nigeria. The study specifically described the socio-economic characteristics of maize farmers in Shongom LGA, determined the socio-economic factors influencing the adoption of maize varieties introduced to farmers and identified the constraints faced by farmers in the adoption of the maize varieties. Data were collected through structured questionnaire and focus group discussion and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings revealed that majority of the respondents were male (84.96%), the mean age of respondents involved in maize farming was 36 yearsand46.90% of maize farmers had secondary school education. Also, above average (61.36%) of the respondents were married and the mean household size of the respondents was 8. The binary logit regression output shows that education, years of farming experience and extension contacts had positive and significant relationship with adoption of improved maize varieties; education, years of farming experience and extension contacts were all significant at P<0.01.Years of residence and credit received were significant but had negative coefficients; credit received was significant at P<0.01 while years of residence was significant at P<0.05. The most common constraints to adoption of maize were high cost of fertilizer (97.80%), inadequate credit (74.73%), weeds (57.14%), pest and diseases (41.76%) and late arrival of inputs (33.52%). It is recommended that the cost of education be reduced to the barest minimum so that farmers can afford to educate themselves and their children. Also, more emphases should be made by ADPs and other extension agencies on regular visits by their agents to farmers.
Keywords— Adoption, Maize, Farmers, Improved variety.
Abstract— Sulphite detection and removal is currently an important process in the manufacture of sugar. Our objective in this review paper is to explore the methods of detection of sulphites using Cobalt Nitroprusside nanoparticles.
Cobalt Nitroprusside, also known as cobalt pentacyanonitrosylferrate has proved to be an excellent coordinate compound for the manufacture of its nanoparticles and usage of those nanoparticles in the detection of sulphite. The method proposed in our review paper involves using a carbon paste electrode modified with Cobalt Nitroprusside nanoparticles. Cobalt Nitroprusside being a transitional element complex and is used for the quantification of analytes, provides the industry with a wide potential window.
Sulphites in foods and most commonly in sugar, pose a threat to the health of individuals who consume processed foods regularly. Sulphites are known to cause allergic reactions on the face and eyes and vomiting, diarrhoea and cramps, it is essential to remove the sulphites in ingestible items.
Hence, it is an important process to detect the sulphites present in the sugar making process and taking the necessary steps to eliminate them from the sugar-manufacturing process.
Keywords— Sulphites; processed foods; sugar; cobalt nitroprusside nanoparticles.