IJOEAR: August 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-8, August 2020

Commercial Eucalyptus and Poplar Plantations – New Approaches in Eastern UP

Abstract The commercialization of Eucalyptus and Poplar plantations in western Uttar Pradesh attracted other parts of central and eastern UP in the past few years. In Eastern UP, plantation practices vary according to different agro-climatic conditions, land capability and socio-economic status of farmers. The status and pattern of these commercial practices across eastern region of UP reflect that traditional agriculture / farmers are transforming into multifunctional directions and are increasing in a progressive manner. With a view to study planting pattern, demand- supply gap and economic returns of these commercial species, the socio-economic studies in six districts viz. Raebareli, Barabanki, Gorakhpur, Bahraich, Sonbhadra and Prayagraj of the region was carried out . The planting pattern of trees showed that on an average, 23 % trees were scattered on farms, 36 % were in blocks/orchards, 24 % were on bunds and 17 % were around homesteads etc. Due to huge demand of these two species in plywood/veneer and other wood based industries, a wide demand supply gap persists. The results depicted that in districts, Gorakhpur, Bahraich and Raebareli where plywood/veneer industry exists; highest demand supply gap of 135450, 151410 and 75230 cft/yr respectively for Eucalyptus and 55741,111050 and 48100 cft/yr respectively for Poplar was recorded. The market value of Eucalyptus and Poplar trees are almost same with a gain of Rs. 2000 to 2500 per tree by 3.0 to 3.5 qt of wood after 6-7 years of planting. The results clearly show that there is a great scope of planting of these two species in the commercial manner in the region of Eastern UP as they are fast growing, exempted from felling and transit permit and availability of market places in wood industries. Thus, commercial approaches for developing profitable, ecologically and socio-economically viable plantation models of these species may further open a new path for economic strengthening of farmers and increasing green cover of the region.

KeywordsCommercial agroforestry, demand-supply gap, economic strengthening, livelihood, planting pattern.

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Effects of Biochar and Compost on Cocoa (Theobroma Cacao) Seedlings Growth

Abstract The research was carried out at the experimental field of the Kumasi Institute of Tropical Agriculture (KITA) to evaluate the effect of biochar and compost on the growth of cocoa seedlings. There were four (4) treatments including biochar, compost, a combination of biochar + compost, and a control. Treatments were applied at a rate of 0 g (control), 60 g compost, 60 g biochar, and 30 g each of biochar and compost combination into 60 kg soil in polybags. The treatments were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data were collected on the number of leaves, plant height, stem girth, and leaf area, all analyzed using analysis of variance. Significant treatment means were separated LSD at P≤0.05. The analysis of variance indicated significant differences among treatment types in plant height (P<0.00001), the number of leaves (P<0.034), stem girth (P<0.044) and leaf area (P<0.012). The highest seedlings height was recorded in soil amended with biochar (55.3 cm) and the least in the control (28.1 cm). Soils amended with compost (15.3) recorded the highest numbers of leaves while a relatively low number was recorded by control (9.0). Stem girth was very high in soils amended with compost+biochar (0.76 mm) and the least in the control (0.62 mm). The highest leaf area was recorded in soils amended with biochar (84.6 cm2) while the control recorded 57.0 cm2. It can be recommended that the application of 60g biochar influences significantly growth parameters of cocoa seedlings at nursery.

Keywords— cocoa, biochar, compost, seedlings, growth, soil, treatments, nursery.

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Yield and Yield Parameters of 46 Cotton (Gossypium spp.) Cultivars under Kahramanmaras (Turkey) Conditions

Abstract Variety yield and adaptation studies are of great importance in increasing cotton production and cultivation. This work was carry out to determine yield(seed cotton and fiber) and yield parameters (plant height, sympodial branches, boll number, seed cotton weight, 100 seed weight and ginning outturn) of 46 cotton genotypes, two of which belong to barbadense and forty-four of hirsutum species, under east Mediterranean ecological conditions of Kahramanmaras – Turkey in 2013 and 2014. According to the analysis of variance yield and yield parameters showed significant differences between genotypes. Year and genotype-year interactions were not significant for all characteristics studied. Based on two-year average results, cotton cultivars BA-119, ST-468 and Furkan gave higher seed cotton and fiber yield per hectare than the others. Minimum seed cotton and fiber yield was observed in Maydos. Cotton varieties BA-119, ST-468 and Furkan can be recommended to cotton producers for production regions due to their high seed cotton and fiber yield.

Keywords Seed cotton yield, fiber yield, yield parameters.

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Isolation and Selection of Actinobacteria Against Pathogenic Bacteria From Shrimp Pond Water on Duyen Hai District, Tra Vinh Province, Vietnam

Abstract In the shrimp-farming process at Vietnam has used antibiotic mostly, this leads status of antibiotic resistant bacteria and product do not qualified to the market. Bacteria, especially actinobacteria, had resistant ability to human pathogenic bacteria in water and they have an important role in sustainable aquaculture. This study aimed to isolate and select good actinobacterial strains against pathogenic bacteria, from 8 samples of shrimp-pond water at 3 sites Ngu Lac, Phuoc Tri and Long Toan of Duyen Hai district, Tra Vinh province on Gause-1 agar medium. Fifty-three actinobacterial isolates were isolated in which 23 isolates resistant to at least one of pathogenic bacteria by well-diffusion method. Among them, 15 isolates were identified as resistant to Bacillus cereus, 12 to Staphylococcus aureus, 11 to Escherichia coli and 18 to Vibrio parahaemolyticus. There were 7 isolates had good resistance to select for PCR technique and sequencing and the result were determined 7 these strains: NL1-1.9, NL1-18a, NL2-2.1b1, NL2-2.2, PT1-1.7a, PT2-2.8a, LT1-1.3 belonged to three genere: Streptomyces, Nocardioides, and Glutamicibacter.

Keywords— actinobacteria, antimicrobial, schrimp-pond water, Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

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Proliferation of Citrus aurantifolia by In Vitro Epicotyl Segment Culture

Abstract It is clear that, beneficial species of Citrus need to improvement especially by new methods due to limitations of conventional methods. New methods like biotechnology and gene transfer need to establishment of regeneration plants by tissue culture. Shoot proliferation in Citrus is easy but rooting of proliferated micro shoots has been discussed in various articles. The goal of this study is presentation of a proper method for rooting of micro shoots in Citrus by manipulation of media content. Hypocotyl segments of Citrus aurantifolia from 45 day old seedlings and 0.5 – 0.7 cm in length were cultured on MS media supplemented with different kinds and concentrations of plant hormones suitable for shooting and rooting such as BA, IBA and NAA alone or together. 1 mg/l BA and 1.5 mg/l NAA on MS media was the best treatment for shooting and rooting respectively. In this study we can overcome one of the most important problems of establishing regeneration system in Citrus and opening the way for biotechnology and gene transfer for this important and economic plant.

Keywords— Citrus aurantifolia, gene transfer, rooting, shooting.

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Impact of Technology on Improving Cassava Yield and Value

Abstract Many cassava farmers suffer from low production and low profit because of little or no support in terms of improved technology to improve yield and add value to their produce. In this paper we examined the available improved production and processing technologies among cassava farmers and how they are propagated and used in Momo Division. Descriptive survey research design was used, and primary data was collected using the purposive and random sampling techniques from a sample size of 350 respondents. Data were extracted through excels and computed using the SPSS.20 software. The results of this study revealed that most producers (35%) were in Mbengwi Sub Division, the majority (76%) were women, most of them (71.2%) were married; have had primary education (51.8%); fell within the active age range of 31- 50 years. Households with children were majority (93.64%) and relied on family labor. Hypothesis testing results attested that some techniques like the use of improved varieties and planting distances were well propagated, while the use of mechanized equipment, fertilizers and pesticides were very minimal. All categories of the variables studied, occurred with equal probabilities with one sample Chi – Square test at 0.05% level of significance. Suggestions were made to all actors, to ameliorate the situation by improving on the social amenities, road infrastructure; farm cultivation and processing equipment, seed material, and capacity building of farmers to make them more self-sustaining.

Keywords— Cassava, propagation, use, improved technology, production, value chain.

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