IJOEAR: December 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-12, December 2019

Ecological-edaphic and Socio-economic drivers of on-farm tree farming enterprises in Wakiso District, Central Uganda

Abstract The biophysical-edaphic and socio-economic factors do equally influence the on-farm tree farming in the smallholder farming systems. Naturally, neither of the factors do act in isolation, but they are interrelated. The study was carried out in Nsangi sub-county, Wakiso District, 2018. Using the stratified random sampling method based on landholding sizes, a sample of size of sixty households were selected and interviewed. The objectives of the study were to examine the influence of the bio-physical, edaphic and socio-cultural-economic factors onto the performance of the on-farm tree farming enterprise, and to evaluate the farmer’s participation in on-farm tree farming activities. The results showed that both ecological-edaphic and socio-cultural-economic factors influence the performance of the tree volume, tree species diversity and tree stand density/ha. There is a negative correlation between size of landholding and farmer’s interaction with the on-farm tree farming enterprises. Judging from the results of this study, there is a need for a policy review aimed at devising appropriate socio-cultural-economic and ecological-edaphic practices that promote on-farm tree farming programmes.

Keywords— On-farm tree farming enterprise, ecological-edaphic, socio-cultural-economic factors.

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Farmers Profits: Can the Standard Weights and Measures Help?

AbstractIn Ghana, rural people, mostly farmers, experience food insecurity. In bargaining with marketers, farmers tend to lose profits. The use of traditional weights and measures led to inefficient transactions. These difficulties have negatively affected farmers’ productivity, calories intake, and international competitiveness. This research investigates how standard weights and measures can secure farmers’ profits at local markets. Using a random selection of 312 farmers for the questionnaire survey at two markets, we examine the impact of current pricing methods on farmers’ profits and advantages of standard weights and measures for farmers. The results show that price decision-making was based on three primary methods: (1) traditional weights and measures, (2) negotiation with individual marketers, and (3) negotiation with market queens. Markets queens and traditional measures negatively influenced farmers’ profits. Farmers’ perceptions showed that standard weights and measures would not only increase their profits at local markets but also enhance their international competitiveness.

Keywords— Ghana, food security, local market, weights and measures.

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Potential Impact Assessment of Agricultural Practices on Water Quality in Nyanza District; A Case Study of Bishya Wetland

Abstract A challenge of linking agricultural sector with water quality in order to combat water pollution remains worrying for the Government of Rwanda. The general objective of the study was to assess the potential impacts of agricultural practices on water quality in NYANZA District. Specifically, the study assessed agricultural practices in Bishya wetland, analyzed the level of water pollution in Bishya wetland, and demonstrated the correlation between agricultural practices and water quality from Bishya wetland. Data were obtained through questionnaires, observation, and laboratory analysis of water samples taken twice per month in six sampling points of bishya dam situated in bishya wetland starting from 4th March 2019 up to 20th August 2019. The Linear Regression Model using SPSS statistics with 95% confidence interval was used to demonstrate the correlation between agricultural inputs and water quality data for all selected physico-chemical parameters. Findings revealed that agricultural practices in Bishya wetland and surrounding areas are characterized by the presence of different crops, ineffective anti-erosions, absence of wetland margins, ineffective drainage of wetland, use of organic manures and chemical fertilizers, as well as the presence of different types of rocks and soils. Findings revealed also that all parameters have not manifested pollution, but some of them did according to Rwanda Standard Board guidelines. In sampling point1, the parameters that presented pollution were nitrites (r=0.047), phosphates(r=0.384), iron (r=0.11), and manganese(r=0.018); in sampling point2, were nitrites(r =0.010), iron (r=0.059), and chemical oxygen demand(r=0.012); in sampling point 3, were pH (r=0.048), nitrites(r =0.086), and phosphates (r=0.329); in sampling point 4, were nitrites (r =0.123), iron(r=0.182), and manganese (r=0.051); in sampling point 5,were turbidity (r=0.080), nitrites (r=0.095), phosphates(r=0.188),iron(r=0.093), manganese(r=0.051), and chemical oxygen demand(r=0.017), and in sampling point 6, the parameters that presented pollution were nitrites(r=0.046), phosphates(r=0.277), iron(r=0.106), and manganese(r=0.190). Finally, findings revealed that agricultural practices in Bishya wetland and surrounding areas, have contributed to the pollution of water quality of Bishya dam through substances of organic manures, chemical fertilizers and pesticides, crop residues, and soil sediments that are transported into the dam by erosion. The study concluded that an effort to create anti-erosions in all areas surrounding wetland, respectful of buffer zones, improving vegetation covers, creating water management bodies at cells level, increasing awareness of population about ecosystem functions, and capturing rain water from houses may effectively contribute to water quality in Bishya wetland.

Keywords— Agricultural practices, water quality, water pollution, and Bishya wetland.

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Abundance Plankton and Analysis Stomach Content and Trophic Level in Makassar Strait at East Season

Abstract The research aims to know the condition of environmental parameters both from biological factors and physical factors of the Makassar Strait during the East season. The usability of the research ie can be to build and simulate dynamic models of fisheries systems. Data Collection has been carried since May 2019 to November 2019. Data collection on environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, flow velocity) and nutrients (nitrates and phosphates), phytoplankton and zooplankton abundance, , and gastric contents analysis were carried out, Method for analysing was used analysis of variance (ANOVA) to compare environmental parameters, nutrients and abundance of plankton between the three districts observed. The relationship between the abundance of plankton with environmental parameters was analyzed by using multiple linear regression analysis. Determination of trophic level is based on analysis of gastric contents using the TrophLab 2K program. Results of analysis of variance (ANOVA) between observation stations grouped in 6 months of observation showed that salinity was significantly different between locations and months of observation, temperature and pH were significantly different between months but did not differ according to location of observation, whereas DO levels did not show differences either between locations. The results of identification of phytoplankton types obtained during this research were dominated by diatoms. The type of zooplankton obtained is generally dominated by copepods. The result of gastric surgery is 10 dominant and economically valuable fish’s species belonging to planktivor, omnivor and carnivor fish, and based on ecosystems including pelagic and demersal fish.

Keywords— Abundance Plankton, phitoplankton, zooplankton, gastric contents, Makassar Strait.

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Effects of Water Deficiency on the Physiology and Yield of Three Maize Genotypes

Abstract Three maize genotypes research experiment was carried out in the experimental farm of University of Debrecen, Hungary. The genotypes were subjected to two different treatments, (irrigated and non-irrigated) where the irrigated was the control experiment. Physiological parameters (SPAD, LAI, HEIGHT) and grain yield (kg ha-1) were measured and statistically computed. From our results, SPAD, LAI and HEIGHT values were significantly affected by water stress in the three studied genotypes. Grain yield was reduced in two of the studied genotypes (S.Y Zephir and S.Y Chorintos). But no significant difference was notice in the KWS 4484 cultivar. LAI was not affected in the second measurement in the S.Y Chorintos genotype and, plant height did not record any difference in the first measurement in the KWS 4484 cultivar. Our results suggest second experiment to specifically look at the critical stage in the genotypes growth where water stress has the severe effect on the studied genotypes.

Keywords Maize genotype, water deficiency, Physiology and Yield.

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