IJOEAR: December 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-12, December 2020

Profile of the Tribal Families from Palghar District

Abstract This paper examines the profile of the tribal families from Palghar district. The study was conducted at the Palghar district. A sample of 120 tribal families were considered as respondents for present study. The respondents were interviewed with the help of specially designed schedule. Collected data was classified, tabulated and analysed by using various statistical method. The result of the study showed that most of the respondents have ‘medium’ family education status, ‘medium’ family size, ‘medium’ annual family income, ‘cultivation’ as their major occupation, ‘marginal’ land holding, ‘fair’ cropping pattern, ‘medium’ farming experience and ‘low’ social participation. The extension workers should consider these facts while planning and executing programmes for development of the tribal families living in Palghar district.

Keywords— Profile, Tribal families.

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In-Vitro Evaluation of selected Fungicides on the Growth and Sporulation of Alternaria alternata causing Blight Disease of Broad Bean (Vicia faba L.)

Abstract Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) is an important leguminous cold season crop cultivated widely in different parts of the world and in India. This crop is grown especially in U.P., Bihar, Punjab, Haryana and in the foot hill ranges of Himalayan region including north eastern states. In Manipur, it is an important winter vegetable cum pulse crop. However, this crop suffers attack of various diseases of fungi, viruses and nematodes resulting in substantial reduction in yield. Hence, an in-vitro evaluation of selected fungicides on the Growth and Sporulation of Alternaria alternata causing blight disease of broad bean (Vicia faba L.) was under taken in the present investigation. A judicious application of Tricyclazole and Copper oxychloride at 1000ppm can effectively manages the blight disease of broad bean and prevent economic loss due to disease condition.

Keywords— Alternaria alternata, broth media, solid media, sporulation, mycelium mat, radial growth, inhibition, fungicides, per cent disease incidence index.

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Effect of Pseudomonas Fluorescens in the Germination and Growth of Prosopis Laevigata under Greenhouse Conditions

Abstract Mesquite (Prosopis laevigata) is a tree of arid and semi-arid areas of northern and central Mexico. This species allows erosion control, atmospheric nitrogen fixation, and improves soil quality. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a rhizobacterium that favors plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR). Also, promotes seed germination and development of Mesquite plants under adverse environmental conditions.

The aim is to evaluate the role of bacterial strains A7 and Sv of P. fluorescens, using two types of soil (vertisol and phaeozem), and adding vermicompost (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 tons/ha) in the germination and growth stages of mesquite (Prosopis laevigata).We tested the characteristics developed by the plants over 180 days. A randomized experimental design with four repetitions was used to test the seed germination rate and 16 more variables in the greenhouse, such as morphology, dry biomass accumulated, and morphological indices through the randomized factorial experimental design with three factors, 2x3x5x3.

Regarding the control treatment, the use of the bacterial strain A7 of P. fluorescens inhibited the germination of mesquite seeds, while the strain Sv favored seedlings development. We observed opposite effects; inhibition and growth in the germination stage, and development of the seedlings observed at 180 days when using the A7 and Sv strains of P. fluorescens.

Keywords Arid and semi-arid areas, Bacterial strain, Biofertilizer, Mesquite, Plant growth-promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), Pseudomonas fluorescens, Vermicompost.

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Effect of Industrialization and Urbanization on Agriculture

Abstract Industrialization and urbanization becomes a bane for the agriculture now days. With increase in industrialization and urbanization, the growth of agriculture sector decline continuously. Large area of land is covered under industry and infrastructure, which results in shortage of agriculture productive lands. The waste products of industry and urban areas are flowed in water bodies such as river, lakes and ponds which pollute them and make them unsuitable for any kind of use. The harmful effluents released from industry contaminate the air with harmful gases and suspended material. These gases and suspended particles affect the growth and development of plants and animals. The suspended particles are inhale during breathing and cause blockage in veins and arteries of animals and humans. To feed the ever increasing population of our country, the farmer put high pressure on shrinking land to get higher output. For this, farmer use modern technology and chemicals which reduce the productivity and fertility of soil. The polluted water of lakes and ponds become poisonous for the water living entities and results in death of plants and animal species. The waste effluents of urban areas and industry have high concentration of heavy metals which are very poisonous for animals and plants which survive under water and on land. The growth of plants and microbes in soil is reduced due to increase in concentration of heavy metal in soil. The effects of industries and urbanization need to be decreased to get a healthy environment for plants and animals. Special management practice needs to be developed to suppress this increasing problem to survive on earth.

Keywords— industrialization, urbanization, suspended particles, productivity, fertility, heavy metals, etc.

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Extraction and Formulation of Perfume from Lemongrass

Abstract Perfume extraction is the extraction of aromatic compounds from raw materials, using methods such as distillation, solvent extraction etc. The extracts are essential oils, absolutes, butters, depending on the amount of waxes in the extracted product. Here, in this work solvent extraction, Enfleurage method, hydrodistillation and steam distillation methods were used to extract essential oil from lemongrass leaves. Distillation based recovery processes such as steam and vacuum distillation are preferred for the extraction of essential oils from plant materials. Other methods include solvent extraction, expression or enfleurage. In the present work, four methods are used for oil extraction namely solvent extraction, hydrodistillation and enfleurage. By using solvent extraction, 2.07% yield of essential oil was obtained. In enfleurage method, we obtained 1.957% oil yield. 0.946% yield of oil was obtained by hydro distillation process. The steam distillation process gave 0.70% yield of oil. From the analysis solvent extraction gave the highest yield because of the less exposure air and heat and this confirm the literature value. The extracted essential oil was formulated into perfume using a fixative and carrier solvent.

Keywords— Perfumes, Lemongrass, Enfleurage method, hydrodistillation.

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One Case of Internal Fixation Treatment for Tibia and Fibula Fracture of Dogs

Abstract Tibia and fibula fracture is a common fracture of hind limb in dogs. It is caused by external force on the hind limb. After fracture happens, external fixation is often used for treatment, and the effect is ideal. However, if the fracture site is close to the joint, we suggest to use internal fixation as far as possible, so as not to cause sequelae of joint stiffness. The author diagnosed the fracture of tibia and fibula in the left hind limb of the poodle through combining the incidence, clinical manifestations and DR examination, and then used the internal fixation plate for internal fixation. Under postoperative care, the dog recovered well.

Keywords— fracture, tibia and fibula, internal fixation, internal fixation plate.

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Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement: Rootstock-Scion Compatibility between Hevea Species and Cultivated Planting Materials

Abstract Rootstocks have a clear effect on rubber tree growth and development during the seedling and immature stages. However, the exploration of Hevea species as rootstocks is relatively uncommon in the general practices in the cultivation and improvement programmes in Malaysia. Hevea species were tested in this research including Hevea brasiliensis, Hevea benthamiana, Hevea camargoana, Hevea guianensis, Hevea nitida, Hevea pauciflora, Hevea rigidifolia and Hevea spruceana. This research examined the successful bud-grafted percentage between scion and rootstock of different Hevea species and cultivated planting materials. The results demonstrated that rootstock-scion of H. benthamiana-PB 260 achieved the highest successful bud-grafted percentage at 94.5%, followed by H. nitida-RRIM 2001 (93.8%), H. nitida-PB 350 (92.3%) and H. pauciflora-PB 260 (90.8%). The lowest successful bud-grafted percentage came from H. benthamiana-RRIM 2025 at 51.1 %. Therefore, the exploration of Hevea species as potential rootstocks based on the successful bud-grafted percentage between rootstock-scion and their compatibility could be applied as a speed indicator for rubber nurseries to produce high quality planting materials.

Keywords bud-grafted, Hevea species, rootstock-scion.

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Criteria for the Selection of Vegetable Growth-Promoting Bacteria to be applied on Roselle Crop (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) and Bioremediation

AbstractIn order to define which are the most important criteria for the selection of plant Growth-Promoting bacterial strains of the Hibiscus sabdariffa L. crop (Roselle), bacterial strains isolated from the roots of Roselle plants of two varieties (Creole and Spider) were used, collected in the community of Río de los Peces, municipality of Candelaria Loxicha, Oaxaca and seeds of the same varieties. To characterize the varieties, the following were determined: total germination percentage (TGP), germination speed (GS), the root length (RL), the stem length (SL), the dry root biomass (DRB), the dry stem biomass (DSB) and the chlorophyll content (CC). Three types of LED lamps were used to illuminate the seedlings. The seeds inoculated with cells of six selected bacterial strains were grown in a greenhouse to determine: the stem length (SL) at 3, 45 and 65 days after sowing (das). The treatments were distributed under a completely random design and comparison of means (Tukey, p = 0.05). The TGP, DSB and DRB parameters were not useful in the selection process of the strains that promoted plant growth to a greater degree. The GS and SL to be considered safe criteria or not, what is important is the relationship of what happens at the time of germination and development of the seedlings in the laboratory and greenhouse. The SL of the plants in the greenhouse showed differences between strains, but not regarding the control and also only observed in the first days of development (3 das). The CC did not prove to be a good selection criterion either. The lamp composed of 15% white light, 27% blue light and 58% red light was the one that most promoted root growth.

Keywords—Plant Growth-Promoting bacteria strains, Hibiscus sabdariffa L, Bacterial strains selection criteria, LED lamps.

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Symptoms and their Assessment of Sugarcane Pokkah Boeng

Abstract Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) is one of the main important commercial crops, mainly grown in tropical and subtropical countries in the world, because these areas provide suitable conditions for obtaining the best yield and productivity. Sugarcane is affected by many pathogens such as fungi, bacterial and viral diseases and fungal diseases are increasingly being affected internationally, affecting the quantity and/or quality of harvested crops. Among the fungal diseases, pokkah boeng have become the main problems faced by sugarcane growing countries, causing serious yield losses. However, there are many reports of an outbreak of the disease, which looks spectacular, but it caused trade and industrial losses. In this review we highlight the importance of sugarcane and the symptoms of the Pokkah Boeng disease tend to develop during period of rapid crop growth.

Keywords— Sugarcane, Pokkah Boeng, Symptoms, Pathogen, Fusarium.

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Study on the Extraction Technology of Ginkgo Biloba Leaf Extract by Enzymolysis Combined with Fermentation

Abstract In this paper, we select Ginkgo biloba leaves in Taizhou as raw materials and use cellulase and pectinase to hydrolyze Ginkgo biloba leaves, and then the Ginkgo biloba leaves extract was prepared by microbial fermentation. Firstly, cellulase and pectinase were selected for single factor experiment and orthogonal experiment to determine the effect of enzyme dosage, enzymolysis time, temperature and pH value on the extraction rate of Ginkgo biloba leaves; then, microbial fermentation was used to study the effect of optimal temperature, time and pH value on the extraction rate of Ginkgo biloba leaves. The results showed that: the optimal enzyme content was 0.2%, the time of enzymolysis is 2 h, the temperature of enzymolysis was 4 oC, the pH of enzymolysis was 4.5; the optimal microorganism content of fermentation was 4%, the temperature of fermentation was 30oC, the time of fermentation was 8 D, the pH of fermentation was 5,and extraction rate was 18.56%.

Keywords— Ginkgo biloba; enzymolysis; fermentation; Ginkgo biloba extract.

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Social and Environmental Concerns of Flower Farms in Central Ethiopia

Abstract The extensive use of fertilizers and pesticides in the flower farming industries has been linked to negative environmental and social impacts. The cross-sectional study was conducted to assess social and environmental concerns of flower farms in Central Ethiopia using questionnaires, focus group discussion and field visits. This study revealed that 317 (52.75%) of respondents reported that flower farms have been disposing of their flower residue of in the open field. The findings of this study showed that 216(36%) of inhabitants buy or receive empty chemical bags and containers that had been disposed by the flower farms. Focus Group Discussion participants perceived the decrease in volume and quality of groundwater, a decrease in productivity, land degradation, and increased emerging diseases due to the existence of flower farms in the area.. In addition, they reported abuse of employee rights, displacement of farmers from fertile land, death of cattle and fish, loss of acceptance for their agricultural and fish products. In conclusion, this study revealed that there are a poor waste management and unsustainable activities by the flower farms. The government should closely monitor these farms and undergo a holistic study to quantify environmental and local inhabitant’s opportunity costs of flower farming activity.

Keywords— Flower farm, Waste management, Environmental pollution, Pesticides, Fertilizer, Human health.

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Effects of Feeding Ice Fish and Feed on the Flavor of Chinese Crab

Abstract Eriocheir sinensis is an important aquaculture animal in China. In order to compare the effects of feeding chilled fish and feed on the flavor of Chinese mitten crab, this experiment compared the volatile flavor substances, sensory evaluation and the differences of amino acids (AA), fatty acids (FA) and nucleotides. As a result, the sweet taste, fresh taste and grass flavor of Chinese chelate crab in the feed group were significantly higher than those in the ice fish group (P<0.05). The fishy smell of the feed group was significantly lower than that of the ice fish group (P<0.05). Amino acids in feed group and chilled fish group were not significantly different. Only 5′-adenosyl monophosphate (AMP) was found to be significantly different between the two groups (P<0.05), and the AMP content in feed group was significantly higher than that in ice fish group. The fatty acid composition of feed group and chilled fish group varied greatly. compared with the chilled fish group, saturated fatty acids (SFAs) and monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFAs) in feed group decreased significantly (P<0.05), while high unsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) increased significantly (P<0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to study volatile small molecules in muscle difference, compared with the ice fish group, the content of aldehydes in the feed group increased significantly (P<0.05), and the content of ketones and nitrogen compounds decreased significantly (P<0.05). The enzyme (lipoxygenase) that catalyzes the formation of aldehydes from polyunsaturated fatty acids was further analyzed. Compared with the ice fish group, the expression of LOX 5 genes and proteins and LOX enzyme activity in the feed group were significantly increased (P<0.05).

Keywords— Chinese mitten crab, Eriocheir sinensis, amino acid, fatty acid, flavor.

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Relationship between Profile and Food Consumption Pattern of Tribal Families of Palghar District

Abstract This paper examines the relationship between profile and food consumption pattern of the tribal families from Palghar district. The study was conducted at the Palghar district. Samples of 120 tribal families were considered as respondents for present study. The respondents were interviewed with the help of specially designed schedule. Collected data was classified, tabulated and analysed by using various statistical methods. The result of the study showed that the relationship between family education status and food consumption pattern, family size and food consumption pattern, annual income of the family and food consumption pattern, cropping pattern and food consumption pattern, resource availability and food consumption pattern was found to be ‘positive’ and ‘significant’. The relationship between major occupation and food consumption pattern, land holding and food consumption pattern, farming experience and food consumption pattern, social participation and food consumption pattern was found to be ‘non-significant’. The extension workers should consider these facts while planning and executing programmes for development of the tribal families living in Palghar district.

Keywords— Profile, Food consumption pattern, tribal families, Relationship.

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Aspects for Agricultural Water Management in Water Stress Conditions: Case Study of Konya Plain, Turkey

Abstract The major aim of the study was to propose sustainable agro-water management strategies, particularly for water poor-ecologies. In current work, information was obtained from worldwide previous findings of studies relevant to the water management. In order to maximize water productivity in those environments exposing climate changes following applicable suggestions were presented: changing crop pattern in accordance of available current water resources, increasing utilization areas in favor of modern irrigation systems, if possible converting of water delivery networks to pipe systems, improving share of low water consuming crops in current crop patterns, practicing deficit irrigation program, collecting water charges based on volumetric basis, more uses of rainwater harvesting systems, training of farmers about irrigated agriculture, and if possible transferring some water from neighbor basins to irrigation farms.

Keywords Climate Change, Crop Pattern, Irrigation, Water Management, Water Shortage.

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Preparation of Crop Calendar on Mangalbari Town under Matiali Block, Jalpaiguri District

Abstract The crop calendar in a single word is time-table providing periodical information of sowing, growing and harvesting of different crops in relation to the climatic conditions of a particular area in advance. It also enhances the crop productivity and determines the appropriate distribution of labor, application of manures in the field as well as the wholesome development of the agronomy of a specific area. The present work is an effort to highlight the present pattern of agricultural practice as well as to identify different types of crops are produced in the Mangalbari town of Jalpaiguri, West Bengal. The investigation also focuses on the assessment of crop combination, crop specialization & crop diversification in the study area to end with the preparation of crop calendar. The entire work concludes with précised suggestive measure for the development of agronomy in the area.

Keywords Crop Calendar, Crop Combination, Crop Specialization, Crop Diversification, Agronomy.

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