Optimization of gamma-aminobutyric acid in three varieties of germinated brown rice using the rotatable central composite design (RCCD) of the response surface methodology (RSM)
Abstract—Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is one of the bioactive compounds required for nervous health of man especially that of the elderly. GABA is an inhibitory neurotransmitter in plants and animals. It is present in paddy rice at levels too low for an active functionality in a health food. Germination of paddy rice varieties could increase the concentration of GABA to levels required for human health. GABA is a non-protein amino acid, it is applied to relieve or prevent non-communicable diseases in man especially among the elderly. Synthetic has failed to meet the ideal requirement of a good supplement; affordability, safety and availability and renewability. The work was done to improve the content of GABA in Sesalin, Mars, and Vara rice varieties through germination process. The three rice varieties (X1), were obtained from Ini Local Government Area of AkwaIbom State, Nigeria. Germination of the brown rice was done under the environmental conditions of germination time (X2), steeping time (X3), and temperature of steeping water (X4). The rotatable central composite design (RCCD) of the response surface methodology was deployed (RSM)for the study to identify terms of the models which exhibited optimum levels of GABA concentration, sensory and market attributes of the germinated brown rice (GBR). The experiment revealed that rice variety, steeping time, germination time and their interactions synergistically influenced the germination process. The model of GABA was significant (p<0.05), R2=0.8722 and mean value =16.03µg/100g of the samples. The models for colour, taste and general acceptability of the samples were not significant (p>0.05), but the response surface plots exhibited some effects on the parameters. Optimization process showed that Vara 44 rice variety, sprouting time of 91.42 hr, 0.023 hr, and steeping water temperature of 37oC produced 906.64ug/100g, 4.53, 4.19, and 7.07 of GABA, colour, taste, and general acceptability of the GBR respectively at 92.80% desirability. More studies are needed using higher values of the independent variables to obtain higher levels of the study responses and education of the consumers on the health benefits of GABA.
Keywords— RCCD, RSM,GBR, GABA, sprouting, gamma-aminobutyric acid-enriched white rice.
Abstract— This study analyzes the determinants of access to agricultural advice in the West Cameroon region. Farm surveys and interviews with agents of the ACEFA advisory were conducted to examine the supply and demand for agricultural advice. The results show that the majority of farmers carry out several agricultural activities and seek various advices, while the offer of advice is mainly intended for a small audience, and much more oriented towards the modernization of production systems and centered on improvement of agricultural techniques. Among the variables identified and included in the logit model, 7 of them positively influence access to agricultural advice.
Keywords— access to agricultural advice, advisory service, agricultural advice.
The Effluent Quality Discharged and Its Impacts on the Receiving Environment Case of Kacyiru Sewerage Treatment Plant, Kigali, Rwanda
Abstract— The study evaluates the performance of Kacyiru Sewage Treatment Plant and its effluent impacts on the receiving wetland. Influent and effluent wastewaters as well as receiving wetland water qualities were measured from April to September 2019, at Kacyiru estate. The average removal efficiency (%) of the parameters such as TN, TP, COD, BOD5 were recorded as 46.57; 61.49; 50.51; 66.79 respectively. The parameters such as pH, TDS, temperature value, were recorded within the prescribed limit of Rwanda standards for domestic wastewater discharge. The other parameters such as NTU, TN, TP, TSS, BOD5 and Fecal coliforms were not complying with National standards requirements for domestic wastewater discharge. The finding showed that the excess nutrient observed may present potential sources of pollution in wetland and decrease the oxygen levels which affect the water living organisms. The discharged effluents contain microbes which can negatively devastate the receiving environment, thus the effect of discharged wastewater on environment is significant.
Keywords— Bacteriological parameters, physico-chemical parameters, receiving environment, sewage treatment plant, wastewater.
Assessing Constituents and Efficiency of Neem Seeds Powder (Azadirachtaindica A. Juss) modifying Soil physical and Chemical Properties
Abstract— Neem is an indigenous tree spreading over some tropical arid climatic area. The trees are carrying fruits containing seeds. The importance of this study is to identify the benefits gained from Neem seeds powder being applied as soil conditioner. The objective is to estimate the inherent chemical components of Neem powder and eventually assess its potential on decreasing soil pH values and salinity levels. Soil samples were collected from College of Agricultural Studies, Sudan University of Science and Technology (SUST). A total of 6 kilogram soil was taken at a depth of 0-30cm from the soil surface, dried and grinded to pass 2mm sieve, divided equally into 4 groups each of 1.5Kg (equivalent to 1500mg). The soil samples were analyzed to determine their chemical and physical properties. Neem seeds were obtained from Department of Integrated Pest Management that belongs to the Institution of ENRDRI. Neem seeds are dried, grinded and kept under room temperature, further used for determine their physical and chemical properties. To each subsoil sample (1.5Kg.) and amount of 0g, 25g, 50g and 75g Neem seeds powder was added and thoroughly mixed. Each of the 4 soils- Neem seeds powder mixture was subdivided into 15 pots, each containing 10mg of the mixture. The experiment ended up with 3 different treatments and the control. After 14 week incubation, the soil- Neem mixtures were analyzed for pH and Ec. At 25% Neem seeds powder, pH recorded values ranging from 7.22-7.99, and values of 7.47-7.89 were for Neem seeds powder of 50% and 75% respectively. Variation in electrical conductivity among different treatments recorded different values according to change in Neem seeds contents. At 25%, electrical conductivity values ranged from 0.22-0.33, at 50% and 75% recorded 0.17-0.28, and 0.17-0.28 respectively, while being 0.22-0.32 in the control. Results showed that the soil pH and electrical conductivity have decreased with increasing Neem seeds powder. Also on conclusion, the results indicated that Neem seeds powder can be used as organic amendment for saline and alkaline soil.
Keywords— Amendment, Organic fertilizer, soil pH, Salinity, Neem seeds powder.
Drivers of honey production and its effects on rural livelihoods in Odravu Sub-country, Yumbe district, Northern Uganda
Abstract— The study identified the key drivers of honey production and its effects on rural livelihoods in Odravu sub-country, Yumbe district, Northern Uganda. The specific objectives were to establish the economic benefits accruing from honey production; to determine the factors that influence the honey produced and establish the socio-economic effects of honey production on the rural livelihoods. The study adopted a descriptive cross-sectional study design with the questionnaire as the primary data collection tool administered to 80 honey-producing farmers from Odranga, Lukenene, Kobo, Ayuri and Pamua villages. The data was analyzed using SPSS v23. The findings revealed that income, medicine, employment, food, pollination, and medicine were the most economic benefits accruing from honey production. The results also indicated that most farmers in the age brackets of 36-45 (36%) were more involved in honey production. most male (75%) were involved in honey production, most honey producers were married (86%) and had 4-7 (69%) members in a household and most honey farmers (53%) had attained the secondary level of education. The factors that influence honey production included the level of education, experience, types of hives kept per farmer, the total number of hives kept per farmer and number of hives colonized. Honey production was highest among farmers with honey production ranking as the first position among the beekeeper’s income-generating activities. Honey production was high among farmers keeping only traditional hives and those who kept more than one hive type as compared to modern beehives. The household honey production level increased with the number of hives kept. The enterprise resulted into increased people’s incomes, access to domestic lighting systems, and better pollination of plants, employment and improved diet of the local people. It is recommended that the government should establish honey and beeswax collection centres and cooperatives and equipping them with the necessary facilities to help in marketing and improve honey production. It is also important to document the available indigenous knowledge and practices of beekeeping for its further improvement and development of the beekeeping sector.
Keywords— Honey production, farmers, rural livelihoods, socio-economic factors.
Yield, Yield Components and Lint Quality Traits of Some Cotton Cultivars Grown under East Mediterranean Conditions
Abstract— This study was carried out to determine yield, yield components and lint quality traits of some cotton cultivars during the cotton growing season under East Mediterranean conditions of Kahramanmaraş-Turkey. The experimental design was a randomized block design with three replications. Eighteen cotton cultivars (Delcerro, Korina, Tamcotsphinx, Aleppo-40, Kurak-2, Sealand-542, Coker-320, Dak-6, Carolina Queen, Nak-8, Siokra-133, Gürelbey, Small bract-1, NK-245, Bahar-82, Silcot-3, Acala-5 and Frego) were used as plant material. At the end of the study, it was determined that there were significant differences among the cotton cultivars for all investigated characteristics. The results showed that plant height, boll number, seed cotton weight, 100-seed weight, lint percentage, seed cotton yield, seed yield, seed oil and protein content, fiber length, fineness and strength for eighteen cotton cultivars ranged between 55.59-112.50 cm, 6.40-9.76 no. plant-1, 4.40-5.83 no. boll-1, 9.11-12.65 g, 35.19-43.06 %, 293.76-419.91 kg da-1, 173.11-272.14 kg da-1, 17.12-22.93 %, 22.71-31.82 %, 26.00-32.80 mm, 3.50-4.60 micronaire and 25.40-40.20 g tex-1, respectively. Cotton cultivar Gürelbey was distinguished with high lint percentage. Cultivar Bahar-82 gave the best results for 100-seed weight, seed cotton yield, seed yield, seed protein content and lint quality traits.
Keywords— Cotton, yield, yield components, lint quality.
Abstract— One form of chemical contamination involves the contribution of heavy metals to the ecosystem mainly from industrial spills and mining operations. The most toxic heavy metals are cadmium, copper, chromium, mercury, nickel, lead and zinc. The importance of this type of toxic lies in the tendency to be accumulated and concentrated by the different species, being more dangerous as it ascends the evolutionary chain towards man.
Chemical precipitation is the most widely used technique for metal recovery. This process is conditioned by the pH, metal concentration and anions present in the water to be treated.
Bioadsorption is considered a viable alternative to the physico-chemical methods currently used for the recovery or removal of heavy metals dissolved in liquid effluents. Its main attractiveness, from an industrial point of view, is its low cost due to the great abundance, easy obtaining and low price of the bioadsorbent material. Bioadsorption is very effective in the treatment of metal concentrations below 100 mg/L, where the application of physical-chemical methods is not technically and economically feasible.
One of these materials of interest is orange peels because, due to their abundance as a waste product of the food industries, they have problems for their disposal and currently have little economic value. However, this residue has a low adsorption capacity, so both physical and chemical modifications are required to increase its adsorption properties.
The objective of this work has been to optimize the treatment of orange peel intended to obtain a bioadsorbent that allows the removal of heavy metals both in a discontinuous process (Batch) and in an ongoing process. The verification of the characteristics of the bioadsorbent obtained has been carried out with a series of synthetic solutions of Cu (II).
The particle size and consistency of the final bioadsorbent has been optimized. In addition, to achieve a homogeneous elution in the continuous process, additional heat treatment has been necessary to prevent the development of microorganisms in a period of time less than one week.
Keywords— bioadsorption, orange peel, heavy metal removal.