Estimation of DNA Fragmentation, Mutagenicity and Biochemical Changes in Mice Exposed to Diazinon and Its Commercial Formulation
Abstract— The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of organophosphorus (OP) insecticide diazinon (DZN) and its formulation (DZNF) in bone marrow and germ cells, DNA fragmentation and biochemical changes induced in Swiss albino male mice. The mice were randomly divided into 7 groups (10 mice each), the 1st group served as control, the 2nd, 3rd and 4th groups, as well, 5th, 6th, and 7th groups are treated with 1/10LD50 (6.5 mg/kg bw), 1/20 LD50 (13mg/kg bw) and 1/40 LD50 (26mg/kg bw) of DZNF and DZN i.p with single dose/week for 4 weeks, respectively. At the end of treatment all animals were sacrificed by cervical dislocation after 24 h of the last treatment. Bone marrow and spermatocyte cells were subjected to chromosomal analysis. As well, liver and brain tissues were collected from all animals for DNA fragmentation and biochemical analyses. Cytogenetic analysis revealeda significant increase (more than 2 folds) in structural aberrations (Chromatid and chromosomal gaps, breaks, deletions, centromeric attenuation and end to end)as well as numerical variations in DZNF treated groups than DZN treated groups in a dose dependent manner. A significant increase (about 3 folds) also was found in DZNF treated groups in structural and numerical aberrations of spermatocyte cells than DZN treated mice in a dose dependent manner. Levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), malondialdehyde (MDA) and DNA fragmentation were significantly increased (about 2 fold) in mice exposed to DZNF than DZN exposed groups. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that DZNF is more genotoxic than DZN as assessed by cytogenetic analysis of both somatic and germ cells of mice and had adverse effects on DNA and biochemical parameters. These results suggested that the effects of DZNF and DZN are dose dependent and the treatment with DZNF is more hazardous and toxic than DZN and it is important to avoid toxicities induced by organophosphate insecticides, take a high level of caution and minimize its agricultural and household uses.
Keywords— Diazinon, formulation, mutagenicity, DNA fragmentation, biochemical changes, mice.
Abstract— Field experiments were carried out in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons to evaluate the effect of tillage practices on selected soil properties in Sudan Savanna Agro-ecology of Nigeria. Treatments consisted of zero tillage, flat beds and ridges, and were laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and replicated three times. Prior to experiment, surface (0-15 cm) soil samples were collected from eight points and bulked; post-harvest composite soil samples were also collected on the basis of treatments and were analyzed using standard analytical procedures. NCRIBEN-01M variety of sesame was used as the test crop for both cropping seasons. The data generated from the study were subjected to Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) using Genstat Release 10.3 DE after which significant means were separated using Least Significant Difference (LSD) at 5 % level of probability. Based on the findings of this study, there were significant effects of tillage practices with respect to most soil parameters studied in 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons. The effects of tillage practices on soil nutrients indicated that the zero tilled plots had higher nutrients and organic matter, followed by the flat beds while the ridged plots gave lower values for essential nutrients and organic matter in both cropping seasons. For conservation or retention of essential nutrients as well as organic matter in soil, zero tillage is recommended for the study area.
Keywords— Soil properties, Sudan Savanna, Tillage Practices, Nigeria.
Abstract— As the days are passing there are changes in development in many districts of the country where the urbanization is growing in term of expansion every day. This expansion is due to the population pressure where the population need to satisfy their needs and trying to accommodate themselves with all those acts the forests are damaged by population through constructions and by cooking and which leads to forest degradation. It is in this context that the present study was conducted in order to assess the impact of urban growth on the forest degradation in Musanze. The study had the Specific objectives which were the analyzing of the trend of forest degradation; the assessment of urban growth status; and to establish the relationship between urban growth and forest degradation. The researcher used data (orthophoto) from Rwanda Land Management and Use Authority of the period 2009-2019. The Arc GIS, total station TS06, Differential GPS, have been used for accomplishing this research. Results show that forests lost at rate of 3.3 % every year due to the heavy urban growth which is not monitored and this implicate that within 30 years there will not be any forest in Musanze district. It is recommended that the district should deliver the education and training courses to local communities; should organize special campaigns about importance of forests to the comminutes and the society, should mobilize the population and other stakeholders to plant many trees in whole city and also make the forestation.
Keywords— Musanze district, Urban growth, Forest degradation, City development.
Abstract— Pot culture studies with coir pith compost indicated that this material in combination with soil and sand can be a suitable for farm yard manure in potting mixtures. When used alone also, coir pith compost was found to be a good medium for the container cultivation. The only practical problem is the use of coir pith alone appears to be the anchorage. A part of this study with nutrient supplementation had indicated that the only major plant nutrient element among N, P, and K that is deficient in composted coir pith is nitrogen.
Keywords— Coirpith, potting mixture, NPK.
Analysis of Physicochemical Parameters in Wastewater and Heavy Metals in Soils of Flower Farms in Ethiopia
Abstract— Floriculture is a young and fast-growing industry in Ethiopia. The sector has created employment opportunity and contributed to our country’s economic development. But it is blamed for causing environmental pollution. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the concentration of pollutants in wastewater and soils of flower farms located in Ethiopia which were selected using purposive sampling. Wastewater and soil samples required for the determination of physico-chemical parameters and heavy metal concentrations were collected from the flower farms from April 1 to May 25, 2019. Physicochemical parameters including pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids, phosphate, sulfate and chemical oxygen demand in wastewater, and concentrations of lead, cobalt, and zinc in soil were determined. Accordingly, the pH values of the four flower farms (Farm 1, Farm 2, Farm 4 and Farm 5) were slightly acidic and below minimum pH value (6) allowed for wastewater effluent set by Ethiopian Environmental Protection Authority. Electrical conductivity at all farms, total dissolved solid at Farm 4, chemical oxygen demand at Farm 3, and 4, sulphate at Farm 4, and phosphate at Farm 2 and 4 were above the provisional standard set by EPA. This study revealed that wastewater sample collected from Farm 4 doesn’t comply with EPA standard in all study parameters. While, the mean concentrations of cobalt and zinc of soil samples varied from 2.8 to 46.6 mg/kg and 54.4 to 111.1 mg/kg, respectively. Conclusively, the wastewater quality discharged from flower farms is not at a level it cannot cause harmful effect. Therefore, there is a need to ensure that wastewater is properly treated before discharged into the environment. Also, the authors recommend that further holistic investigation should be carried out on socio-economic and soil pollution of the floriculture industry in Ethiopia.
Keywords— Floriculture, Heavy metal, Physicochemical, Soil, Wastewater.
Abstract— Potassium (K) is a very essential element needed by plants for healthy growth and good yield. Most soils have abundance of potassium underneath in rock as insoluble forms that are unavailable for plant use. This research was carried out to join in the search to unearth microorganisms from the rhizosphere soil that are able to act on the mineral containing substances, solubilizing them to release the needed soluble form of the potassium for plant use. An isolate, which was characterized and identified to be Cellulosimicrobium funkei, showed significant solubilization on feldspar (a potassium containing compound) supplemented media. It is novel for potassium solubilization. The amount of potassium released by the isolate in comparison to reference cultures varied but favourably compared with the reference cultures. In glucose amended broth, solubilization was: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 7.04mg/l, Enterobacter hormaechei 7.15 mg/l and 6.91mg/l for Aspergillus terreus. Urea supplemented broth: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 5.45mg/l, Enterobacter hormaechei 5.38mg/l and Aspergillus terreus 6.33mg/l. KCl supplemented broth: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 10.23mg/l, Enterobacter hormaechei 8.05mg/l and Aspergillus terreus 9.11mg/l. For temperature, the cultures solubilized best at these respective temperatures: Cellulosimicrobium funkei 27oC, Enterobacter hormaechei 35oC and Aspergillus terreus 30oC. PH was 7.5 for Cellulosimicrobium funkei, 8 for Enterobacter hormaechei and for 7.5 for Aspergillus terreus. When they were now cultured using the combination of the above parameters Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Enterobacter hormaechei and Aspergillus terreus gave a maximum yield of 7.24mg/l, 7.03mg/l and 6.81mg/l of solubilized potassium respectively. This means that the isolate Cellulosimicrobium funkei yielded more solubilized potassium from feldspar than the reference cultures and could therefore be a better potassium solubilizer.
Keywords— Aspergillus terreus, Cellulosimicrobium funkei, Enterobacter hormaechei, Potassium, Soil, Solubilizing.