Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement: Laticifer Ring Count and Latex Yield Assessment of Rubber Species
Abstract— Rubber trees (Hevea spp.), the wilderness trees originating from rain forests of the Amazon, have been domesticated outside South America for more than a century. The trees, specifically of the species Hevea brasiliensis, are now widely established in the tropics especially in Southeast Asia. Nevertheless, opportunities to improve the latex yield productivity of these cultivated rubber trees are limited by their narrow genetic base since they have been descended from a small selection of seedlings derived from seeds collected in the 1800’s. Commercial rubber trees hence face this genetic vulnerability of inbreeding depression that could hamper progress in crop improvement. To explore the feasibility of broadening the genetic base, various Hevea species, viz. Hevea brasiliensis, Hevea benthamiana, Hevea camargoana, Hevea guianensis, Hevea nitida, Hevea pauciflora, Hevea rigidifolia and Hevea spruceana, were assessed for their possible contribution to the genetic improvement of the cultivated rubber trees particularly in latex yield output. The assessment showed that Hevea benthamiana, and Hevea spruceana to be promising in terms of the number of laticifer rings in the bark and latex yield. They are promising candidates for incorporation into the improvement programmes of the rubber tree in Malaysia.
Keywords— Hevea species, latex yield, laticifer rings.
Phosphorus Waste Production in Fish Farming a Potential for Reuse in Integrated Aquaculture Agriculture
Abstract— The development of aquaculture in recent years to become the fastest growing food production in the world is accompanied by a secondary effect on the environment, since considerable quantities of waste can be produced and discharged into the environment, as these phosphorus-rich effluents, over time, can contribute to eutrophication phenomena in the aquatic environment. This pollutant is essentially of food origin and is a necessary macro-mineral for fish. However, current scientific and technical means are far from offering the solution to the environmental problems posed by aquaculture development. However, this effluent is a compound that is necessary for the soil as a fertiliser and has great potential for reuse. In this context, aquaculture systems must therefore be well managed to ensure the environmental sustainability of the sector by exploiting these phosphorus-rich discharges in the system of integrating aquaculture with agriculture. The integration of agricultural and aquaculture production systems is seen as a sustainable alternative and as a way to rationalise the use of water and fertilisers. However, for the optimisation of this integrated system to be justifiable in terms of the exploitation of phosphorus from aquaculture effluents, it is necessary to take ownership of the processes involved in the presence of food-borne phosphorus in these effluents and the possibility of its advantageous use both in aquaponics and in agricultural irrigation, the aim of which is to increase the efficiency and sustainability of both aquaculture and agriculture.
Keywords— Aquaculture, Agriculture, Integration, Phosphorus, Effluent, Aquaponics, Irrigation.
Abstract— There is an increasing trend of using municipal solid waste as an alternative energy resource, burning and converting it into energy in the form of heat or steam or electricity. The aim of this study is to predict energy value of MSW using compositional and proximate-based analysis of solid waste and compare the reliability of models in predicting the energy recovery potentials from different solid waste components. Physical characterization showed that food, yard, textile, leather, rubber, wood scrap, yard, metal, plastic and paper waste were the constituents of all waste samples in the study area, but in varying proportions. The energy content of combustible solid waste was estimated to be 17.50 MJ/kg for gross heating value, and 9.54 MJ/kg for net heating value, which revealed the suitability of solid waste as energy recovery option. In this study several proposed composition and proximate-based mathematical models have been used to estimate the HHV of municipal solid waste. The average high heating values estimated from some models were found to be 16.27 ± 0.90 MJ/kg (Model II), 16.45 ± 0.43 MJ/kg (Model III), 18.97 ± 0.03 MJ/kg (Model XVIII), and 16.60 ± 0.32 MJ/kg (Model XXIV) which were closely match the value with experimentally determined calorific value as 17.50 ± 0.68 MJ/kg. Therefore, it is concluded that the quantity of energy obtainable from a known amount and composition of mixed solid waste can be estimated using already developed models without conducting calorimetric experiments.
Keywords— Characterization, Heating value; Models, Proximate Analysis, Municipal solid waste.
Effect of Pollination Methods on Fruit Set, Yield, Physical and Chemical Properties of Hayani Date Palm Cultivar
Abstract— Field experiment was carried out at Ghour AlSafi in Jordan valley to study the effect of pollination methods on fruit set, yield and some fruit characteristics of Hayani date palm cultivars. Results showed that hand pollination method has better fruit set and yield, but it showed a reduction in fruit weight owing to the obvious increase in yield. The pollination method significantly affected fruit related traits particularly fruit diameter, fruit length to diameter ratio and total soluble solid (TSS).
Keywords— Fruit set, hand duster pollination, hand pollination, Hayani, pollen grain germination.
Effect of Various Level of Nutrient Application on Yield and Yield Attributing Characters of Wheat at Dehradun, India
Abstract— A field experiment was conducted in the Agronomy research farm, Uttaranchal (PG) College of Bio-medical Sciences and Hospital, Dehradun during Rabi season to study effect of different NPK levels on growth and yield of wheat and work out relative economics of different levels of NPK. This field experiment was conducted to investigate the combined effect of different NPK (Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potash) levels on the growth, yield and yield attributing characters of wheat cultivars PBW373. The thrice replicated treatments (T1: Control, T2:25% N2+50% P2O5+ 25% K2O, T3:50% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O, T4:75% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O, T5:100% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O, T6:25% N2+100% P2O5+100% K2O, T7:50% N2+100% P2O5+100% K2O, T8:75% N2+100% P2O5+100% K2O, T9:100% N2+150% P2O5+150% K2O RDF) ha-1 were tested in Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). The results revealed that the highest growth, yield and yield attributing characters replied significantly to NPK fertilizers but access (higher dose than 100%) of Phosphorus and Potash shows negative results. It is resulted that highest growth was recorded with the treatment T5:100% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O or application of (120-30-30) NPK Kg ha-1 and lowest conclude treatment combination was T1 (no fertilizer application). The highest days to maturity was recorded from treatment T5 while the lowest days to maturity was observed from treatment T1. Application of different NPK Levels on economics of wheat showed varied trend in benefit: cost ratio (B: C ratio). The maximum B: C ratio was obtained with treatment T2, while further increase in fertility levels obtained less B: C ratio followed by lowest rate of nutrient. The highest net return was obtained in the treatment T5 followed by treatment T2 and T3 respectively. It was due to the significantly higher grain and straw yield on treatment T5 crop than the other treatments, which resulted in higher net return and benefit cost: ratio. So it is concluded that the treatment T5 (100% N2+50% P2O5+50% K2O) shows best results on wheat crop and proved to the most remunerative dose. This study will enhance the nutrient use efficiency and fetch high and quality production of wheat in less cost of production without causing adverse effect on environment.
Keywords— Fertilizer, Growth, Nutrients, Soil fertility, wheat, Yield.
Potential effect assessment of agricultural activities on water quality of rivers in Rwanda: “Case of Muvumba River in Nyagatare District”
Abstract— The problem caused by agricultural sector to Water Quality pollution remains a big challenge for Rwanda Government. The general objective of the study was to assess the potential effect of agricultural activities on water quality in Nyagatare District. Specifically, the study assessed agricultural activities in around Muvumba River, examine the level of water quality pollution in Muvumba River, and reveal the relationship between agricultural activities and water quality from Muvumba River. Data collected through interview, and laboratory tests of water samples applied once per month in three points sampling of Muvumba River. The action starting from 19th March 2019 up to 20th March 2020. To determine the correlation between agricultural input and Water Quality data at all selected physic-chemicals parameters, by Linear Regression Model using SPSS statistics with 95% confidence interval. The results indicated that agricultural activities on surrounding of Muvumba River, are presented by the existence of different type of crops, non-protection of anti-erosions, non-wetland margins, the farmers using chemical fertilizers and pesticides, the results revealed also that all selected parameters have not addressed positive relationship or pollution, but many of them did, as per to Rwanda Standards Board guidelines. For sampling point one has taken as baseline because it is upstream of Muvumba river at Nyagatare District, in sampling point 2, the parameters that presented pollution were; turbidity (r=0.193), nitrites (r=0.393), iron(r=0.122), manganese (r=0.008); for the sampling point3: were pH (r=0.319); turbidity (r=0.212); nitrites (r=0.143); nitrates (r=0.618); nitrogen ammonia (r=0.441); Iron(r=0.889); manganese (r=0.269); agricultural activities in surrounding of Muvumba River have significantly contributed to the water quality pollution of Muvumba River, through substances of chemical fertilizers, crop residues, and soil sediments that are transported into the River by erosion. Conclusion of the study that creation of anti-erosions in a surrounding Muvumba River areas, protection of buffer zones, performing vegetation covers, inducing water management bodies at cells level, introducing awareness of farmers how ecosystem functions.
Keywords— Agricultural activities, Water quality, Water pollution, Muvumba River.
Lettuce Growth and Production under Plastic Shading as a Response to different Microclimate Condition: A Preliminary Study of Climate Change Factors Impact on Crops
Abstract— Crop production is vulnerable to climate variability, especially when it associated with increasing temperature. Results from global and local scale research with different methods consistently showed negative temperature impacts on crop yield especially vegetables. One reason of lacking research in quantifying the impacts of climate change on crops is difficult to modify the air temperature and climate change marked by global temperature increase happened on regional and sub-regional scales. Therefore, this primary research tried to overcome this problem with planting highland crops on lowland area which has higher temperature area and study what changes experienced in crops growth and production. Lettuce is chosen in this experiment since lettuce is a wild plant native to temperate regions then vulnerable to climate change and as leafy crops, lettuce is representative in examining temperature effects on crop, leaf area is the main determining factor affecting light interception by crop and lead to biomass production. The experiments were conducted under UV polyethylene sheet to reduce the incoming solar radiation, and measured microclimate factors along with lettuce growth and production. Numbers of leaves for both lettuce plants inside the shading were significantly lower and as the consequences the fresh weight was still lower. Direct full sunshine with lower intensity combined with low temperature is the characteristic of highland area, the habitat of lettuce in Tropical area. In open and under shading condition of the experiment, the incoming radiation was still in the range of recommended light intensity for lettuce production. However, the air temperature seemed too high for lettuce cultivation in lowland area. In the nature it is possible that if the earth temperature keeps rising more crops will inhibit higher altitude.
Keywords— Microclimate, lettuce, radiation, climate changes, shading.