IJOEAR: July 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-7, July 2020

Impact of Farmers’ Profile Characteristics on their Knowledge Gain through Need-based Community Radio Programme

Abstract Present study highlights an innovative media technology, Community radio, which has potential to be an effective tool to strengthen agricultural extension system. It also indicates that knowledge of an innovation or technology is the foremost requirement in the way of adoption of the technology by farmers. The pre-knowledge test assessment regarding Integrated Pest Management (IPM) technology of the farmers highlighted that they had significant knowledge gap about the concept and practices of the technology. However, it was also concluded that community radio programmes which are need based and participatory in design could lead to significant increase in knowledge of the listeners. Majorly, the study emphasizes the significant impact of various profile characteristics like education, achievement motivation, scientific orientation, information seeking behaviour and social participation on gain in knowledge of the respondents through community radio programme. This result of the study provides conclusive evidence that audience profile characteristics need to be kept in mind while designing community radio programmes. Moreover, few characteristics can also be modified in favour of knowledge gain of the respondents through appropriate training.

Keywords Community radio programme, profile characteristics, knowledge gain, farmers, integrated pest management.

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Efficacy of Various Botanicals against Maize Weevil (Sitophilus Zeamays) in Laboratory Condition

Abstract Maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamays (Motschulsky) is one of most important economic pest that causes severe economic damage to store grain and its management at the farmers level is must. To determine the efficacy of different botanicals against maize weevils in stored maize a study was carried out at the laboratory of IAAS, Lamjung Campus at room temperature from January to April. Nine treatments were laid out in Completely Randomized Design with four replications. Number of infected seeds, dead weevils, number of exit holes and live weevils were recorded at every 30 days intervals till four months. Analysis of variance showed significant effect of all botanicals on weevil mortality compared to untreated check, but not as effective as liquid extracts as Cinnamomum (9.75), citronella (9.75), mentha (9) and lemon grass (9) were significantly more effective than the rest botanicals (P <0.05). Upto 90 days statically lower numbers of infected seeds were seen at Cinnamomum, Mentha, Lemon grass, Titepati, and Citronella while on 120th day Cinnamomum showed best results. Among all treatments, Cinnamomum oil was found to be better on every parameter thus can solve poor farmer’s problems by integrating them with other cultural measures. However further research are needed to fix the rate graph and the long term effect in large stores of farmers conditions.

Keywords— Botanicals , Maize (Zea mays), Maize weevil (Sitophilus zeamays Mots), Mortality.

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Drought Tolerance and Nitrogen use Efficiency of Upland Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) Genotypes Grown under Varying Water and Nitrogen Regimes

Abstract Rice genotypes were grown under different water regimes and nitrogen levels. Sufficient soil moisture content (SMC) and high N level caused optimum growth of the genotypes. Deficient water and N supply both retarded growth of rice. PSB Rc14, P42, and P38 had high number of tillers, number panicles per hill, number of spikelets per panicle, relative growth rate (RGR), water use efficiency (WUE), harvest index (HI), straw yield, grain weight, and grain yield at field capacity (FC). These genotypes also had high values in the aforementioned growth and yield parameters at 120 kg N ha-1 treatment. In terms of the efficiency in the use of N as indicated by agronomic efficiency of nitrogen application (AEN), recovery efficiency of nitrogen application (REN), and internal efficiency of nitrogen application, PSB Rc14, P42, and P38 still performed better than the rest of the genotypes tested. Evaluation of the combined effect of water and N application showed that PSB Rc14, P42, and P38 significantly produced high grain yields among the genotypes under SMC at FC with 120 kg N ha-1 which suggests that water plays a fundamental role in rice growth in combination with N. P42 showed the less affected by water deficit and low N nitrogen levels, hence, produced the high grain yield.

Keywords Upland rice, nitrogen use efficiency, agronomic use efficiency, recovery use efficiency, rice genotypes.

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Application of Geospatial Techniques for Monitoring Gikondo Wetland Management: from Industrial Park to Eco-Tourism Park

Abstract For several years, Gikondo Wetland has been serving as home for industries, warehouses, garages, and was critically degraded by various anthropogenic activities since its establishment as industrial park in 1960s. The objective of this study is to analyse quantitatively and qualitatively the dynamics of Gikondo Wetland degradation and its rehabilitation progress from industrial to eco-tourism Park. Geo spatial techniques (GIS and Remote Sensing) have been used to analyse changes induced by management techniques from 1987 to 2019. Results show that wetland area has reduced from 32.03% (1987) up to 25.70% (2010) indicating its degradation due to the increase of built up areas and bareland over the wetland area. From 2010 to 2019, the area of wetland has increased. This positive change of land cover is indicating a good progress of Gikondo wetland restoration process. Continuing reinforcement of national legal framework is required and the implantation of development programs should be done with minimum tradeoffs in order to achieve the transformation of this former industrial park into an eco-tourism park. Rehabilitation process should consider wetland functions, services, and replacement options for achieving sustainable use and management of wetlands in Rwanda.

Keywords Geospatial techniques, Gikondo Wetland, Industrial Park, Historical Dynamics, Eco-tourism Park.

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Use of Medicinal Plants of Brazilian Caatinga in a Perspective of Solidarity Economy

Abstract The culture of using medicinal plants is a practice that has been present since ancient times and is passed on from generation to generation by indigenous peoples, traditional populations that are made up of farmers, researchers. This work aims to perform a survey of the ways in which medicinal plants are used by students of Youth and Adult Education and their perspectives for a solidarity economy in a Municipal School in the Picuí city, Paraiba, Brazil. This research has a qualitative and quantitative character, which involves the obtaining of descriptive data, obtained in the direct contact of the researcher with the studied situation, emphasizes the process more than the product and is concerned with portraying the perspectives of the participants about the use of medicinal plants, using as main tools the application of questionnaires and a lecture-class. According to the characteristics of the system of production of medicinal plants described in this research, family farming presents favorable conditions for its cultivation. It is, therefore, another alternative in the generation of employment and income through a solidarity economy for this segment so important and representative of Brazil.

Keywords Medicinal Plants, Solidary Economy, Family Agriculture.

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Agrometeorological Indicators based on Satellite Imagery in Western Bahia, Brazil

Abstract The western region of Bahia stands out for its large-scale agricultural activity, which uses advanced technology and produces high yields of soybeans, corn and cotton, making it the largest grain producer in Northeast Brazil. The aim of this study is to apply the SAFER algorithm to biophysical indicators, in order to analyze the dynamics of natural vegetation and irrigated crops throughout the crop cycle. The model requires data from meteorological stations and satellite images for its application. Sixty-nine MODIS satellite images with a 250-m spatial resolution and a 16-day temporal resolution taken from 2016 to 2018 were used. The method was effective as a tool to monitor agricultural crops, and to distinguish the phases and vigor of the crops according to the spectral characteristics of their surface. The results of this study may assist in the monitoring of crops and in decision making, and may contribute to the rational use of water resources for irrigation and management of rainfed crops.

Keywords biomass, evapotranspiration, irrigated crop, SAFER, water production.

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The Impact of Land Degradation on Agricultural Productivity in Nyabihu District-Rwanda, A Case Study of Rugera Sector

Abstract This study looked at the impact of land degradation on agricultural productivity in Nyabihu district. Specific objectives were to assess the factors influencing land degradation in Nyabihu district, Rugera sector, the vulnerability level of land degradation and propose suitable land management conservation strategies.

Geographical Information system (GIS) and Remote sensing data were used for the assessment of factors influencing land degradation, where Land cover (classified) maps were produced based on data extracted from google earth and cultivated slope was computed based on the Digital elevation model (DEM) of 2018 downloaded from earthexplorer.usgs.gov. GIS vulnerability assessment and classification method was used to assess level of vulnerability to soil degradation and land slide. To propose suitable land management conservation strategies practical Tools on Soil and Water Conservation measures alongside with W4GR matrix of soil and water conservation measures documents were consulted. The data collected were analyzed using ArcGIS 10.4software, and Excel; the results were presented using maps, bar graphs and tables. Based on two main factors (slope and soil depth) a conservation map and matrix were developed with proposed options of restoration and conservation of land degraded.

Keywords— land degradation, agricultural productivity, soil fertility, GIS.

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Impact of an APT01 Compost on Quality Improving of the Anna Apple (Age of the Plant 8.0-8.5 Years)

Abstract This study aims to analyze the effect of theAPT01compost as the soil organic matter to the apple crop production (Malus sylvestris) at harvest time (SPN).The experiment was carried out according to completely randomized factorial design with the amount of mud cake that was fermented for two weeks by APT01 as bio-catalyst. The experiment was conducted in a treeation area of ​​400 square meters. The amount of the APT01compost as much as 20, 30, and 40 kg per tree was applied a day after defoliation. A total of 48 apple trees aged about 8.0-8.5 years with a distance between trees 2-3 meters were randomly selected. Observations made during fruit growth took 5-6 months after giving the APT01compost at harvest (SPN).The parameters measured were the number and weight of fruit per tree. Results were analyzed variance, two-way ANOVA with interaction (α = 0.05), using Microsoft Excel. The results of variance analysis concluded that : (1) The addition of 20, 30, and 40 kg of APT01 compost per tree, shows significant differences (α = 0.05) on the amount of fruit production on SPN, (2) The addition of 30 and 40 kg of APT01 compost has an impact on increasing the quality of fruit from grade C (12-15fruits per kg) to grade AB (10-11 fruits per kg).

Keywords— APT01; mud cake; compost; apple; fermentation.

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