IJOEAR: July 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-7, July 2021

Role of Urban Agriculture in Achieving Food Security and other Social Missions – A Global Study

Abstract There is an increasing importance of addressing food scarcity and food safety issues as the population is increasing at a very fast rate. With the urban population increasing even more rapidly, there is a need for a radical change in the perception of food production and agriculture. Urban Agriculture has become significant in recent times as it provides a way for urban people to practice farming and easing the pressure on food production, in a way that can satisfy other important goals in a society. This paper analyses the different ways in which urban agriculture can benefit society through qualitative research. The paper finds that urban agriculture is practiced with the primary intent of food security and with other socio-economic goals in mind, through a review of various forms of qualitative data. The paper concludes by advocating for policy implications that will focus on bringing urban agriculture from the purview of the informal and unorganized sector and promoting it to urban dwellers as a viable economic and social activity.

Keywords— Food Security, Local Economies, Social Missions, Urban Agriculture, Urbanization.

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Biogeochemical aspects of selected elemental content in Ilex paraguayensis S.H from Eastern Paraguay

Abstract Yerba mate, Ilex Paraguayensis, is a plant of Paraguayan origin used in infusions/macerations by the ancient inhabitants of Paraguay as a “reviver”/energy beverage and mineral supplier which consumption is lasting up today; furthermore, it is extended almost worldwide. In regard to its mineral content very few studies are known; moreover, none has been published related to the occurrence of REE (rare earth) and other refractory elements in the leaves. In this work, minor and trace elements composition have been investigated by XRF techniques to determine their correlation as well as provenance. The analysis of complex spectra was performed by the AXIL software and the quantitative analysis by the QAES software. Analyzed trace elements were the refractory Rb , Sr, Y, Zr, Nb, Ba, La, Ce, Nd , 3d as Ti, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn. Minor elements were Mn, Fe which are often related to the above refractory together with S and K.

Keywords— Ilex Paraguayensis, uptake of minerals, elementary content, refractory and rare earth elements.

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Screening of Sponge-associated Actinobacteria against Human Pathogenic Candida albicans in Kien Giang Sea, Vietnam

Abstract From 198 actinomycetes isolated from sponges at the Kien Giang Sea in Vietnam, 42 actinomycete isolates were selected with the ability to resist Candida albicans, a species of yeast causes human diseases. There were eight isolates having strong resistance, 31 moderate, and three weak resistances. Eight best isolates were selected to identify by 16S rDNA gene analysis and sequencing. The result showed that six strains were characterized as Streptomyces spp., one strain belonged to genus Microbacterium, and one strain was genus Rhodococcus.

Keywords— Antimicrobial activity, Candida albicans, Kien Giang Sea, sponge, Streptomyces.

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Optimization of a Filter Medium Suitable for Direct Irrigation with Seawater through a Water Table

Abstract The method that humanity has adopted to moisturize and thus bring to life the plants, imitating the model that was most visible, is rain. However, the great secret of irrigation lies in the land, in the water table and aquifers that treasure and manage water, sending away every drop of rain and spreading water through the underground basins of rivers, indirectly watering from the mountain to the Sea. The key is in the different circulation rates of groundwater because of the nature of the substrates. However, agriculture has adopted irrigation from above as we know it and has focused especially on drainage capacity. From this point of view, saline water is not beneficial for irrigated agriculture, but it may be the only source of irrigation water in large arid regions, especially in developing countries, where extreme freshwater scarcity and rapid population growth require more water.

When it is raised the possibility of watering with seawater without desalination, always through capillary systems, it is essential to take into account the different soil strata, the distance to the water table, the composition of the seawater, the capacity soil chemical reactions to salts, etc. Modification of any of these parameters may produce salinization effects, moisture loss or desertification among others.

Keywords Desertification, Desalination, Reuse, Marine Water Table.

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Real Time Nitrogen Management in Rice using Leaf Colour Chart under Rainfed Condition of Western Hills of Nepal

Abstract A field experimentation to determine the response of real time nitrogen management in rice using leaf colour chart on yield of rice under rainfed condition of western hills of Baitadi district of Nepal during rainy season of 2015. The variety for the field experimentation was carried in the variety “Rato Basmati”. This variety was tested at five LCC based nitrogen management practices (N omission + recommended dose of P and K, recommended dose 100:30:30 kg NPK ha-1, 30 kg N ha-1 + LCC < 4 @ 30 kg N ha-1, No basal + LCC<4 @30 kg N ha-1 and 30 kg N ha-1 15 DAT + LCC<4 @ 30 kg N ha-1) in simple RCBD with three replication. The soil of experimental site was sandy loam in texture with pH 5.93. The data showed that there was saving of 10 Kg N ha-1 as compared to recommended N practice (100 Kg N ha-1) in that LCC management practices where the basal application is omitted. Real time nitrogen management in rice using leaf colour chart significantly influenced the growth, yield attributes and yield over control. The highest plant height (122.90 cm), grain/panicle (103), grain yield (3890.83 kg/ha), harvest index (57.58) was obtained with no basal nitrogen plus LCC based nitrogen application. Maximum effective tiller (283.75) obtained from N2 application at 15 DAT+LCC based N application. The application of nitrogen only using the LCC or omitting the basal application further improve the efficiency of applied nitrogen and increase the yield by 75.53% and 25% respectively over the control and recommended practice.

Keywords— Real Time Nitrogen Management, Leaf Colour, Western Hills of Nepal, rice management.

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An Evaluation of different Forms of Granulated Compound Fertilisers and Micronutrients on Solanum lycopersicum var. Swaraksha

Abstract An open field experiment was conducted at the University of Mauritius Farm to evaluate the effects of different forms of compound fertilisers and the response of incorporating micronutrients along with the compound fertilisers on the vegetative growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum, var. ‘Swaraksha’. Nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium being three essential plant nutrient components, play important roles in the production of Solanum lycopersicum. Besides, micronutrients in minute amounts are also indispensable for proper plant development. The treatments were randomly arranged in block design (RBD) with four replicates. These were: control (T1), 13-13-20-2 complex (T2), 13-13-20-2 complex with micronutrients (T3), 13-13-20-2 blended form with micronutrient (T4) and 13-13-20-2 in compacted form (T5). The results showed that treatment T4 had the most significant upsurge in growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum with respect to the control block and compared to the other forms of fertilisers. The yields were found to be 47.83 t/ha under T4 followed by 35.52 t/ha under T3. The highest number of flowers and fruits per plant were also observed in T4. Hence, it is essential to employ these nutritive components for satisfactory growth and yield of Solanum lycopersicum while taking into consideration the costs of inputs.

Keywords— blended, compacted, complex, costs, growth, yield.

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Haematological Characteristics of Broiler Birds Administered Neem Leaf (Azadirachta indica) and Pawpaw leaf (Carica papaya) Leaf Extracts

Abstract One hundred and twenty (120) broilers birds of Abore acere breed were used to determine the effect of pawpaw leaf and neem leaf extracts on the haematological profile of broilers birds. The chicks were randomly assigned to four treatments with 30 birds in each treatment. Each treatment was replicated three times with 10 birds per replicate in a completely randomized design (CRD). Treatment 1 received only vaccine and drugs without the leaf extract in their water, treatment 2 and 3 received 150 ml of the Neem and Pawpaw leaf extracts, respectively, and treatment 4 received 75ml of Neem extract and 75ml of pawpaw leaf extract mixed. 150ml of the extracts were all diluted into 1 litre of fresh drinking water and served to the broiler chicken. At the end of the experiment, which lasted for 7 weeks, blood sample were collected from the birds and analyzed for the haemoglobin concentration, packed cell volume, white blood cell count, and red blood cell count. Differential count was also carried out. Data obtained were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Result showed that there were no significant differences (P> 0.05) among the treatments in all the parameters tested. The study therefore concluded that 150 ml of neem leaf or pawpaw leaf extracts, or combination of the extracts may be administered to broiler birds without any deleterious effect on broilers’ haematological indices.

Keywords— Haematological indices, Neem leaf extract, Pawpaw leaf extract, broiler.

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Effect of mixed Gmelina and Moringa leaf meal inclusion on growing Red Sokoto does fed Digitaria smutsii hay based complete diets

Abstract— Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera (GMMO) leaf meal were combined at the ratio of 3:1 and included in the diets of Red Sokoto does at 0, 10, 20 and 30% to investigate the effect on dry matter intake, live weight and cost of feed in Digitaria smutsii hay based diets. Twenty-eight (28) growing Red Sokoto does aged between 6 and 7 months with average weight of 14.71±0.09 kg were randomly assigned to four treatments balanced for weight with seven does per treatment in a completely randomized design. The experimental diets were offered at 4% of body weight. Cost of feeding was studied to determine the cost effectiveness of GMMO leaf meal inclusion in the diets. Results indicated that inclusion of GMMO leaf meal significantly (P<0.05) improved weight gain of Red Sokoto does. Animals fed dietary treatments containing 10% and 20% of GMMO leaf meal had significantly (P<0.05) higher weight gain (3.30kg and 3.38kg) than animals on 30% inclusion level. The feed cost/kg gain ranged from N 326.75 in 20% followed by N354.59, N 441.74 and N518.30 in 10%, 30% and 0%, respectively. The cost-benefit analysis showed that at 20% GMMO leaf meal inclusion, cost of feed/kg gain was reduced by 36.96% and gave more profit. The GMMO leaf meal inclusion did not have any adverse effect on Red Sokoto does. It can be concluded that mixed Gmelina and Moringa leaf meal can be included at 20% in diets of Red Sokoto does for improved dry matter intake, average daily weight gain and profitability.

Keywords— Leaf meal, weight gain, Red Sokoto goats, Gmelina arborea and Moringa oleifera.

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Review Article: Green Synthesis of Silver Nanoparticles and Their Application

Abstract— Nanoparticles are small particles which ranges from 1-100nm in size. Nanoparticles can be synthesized through physical, chemical and biological method. Synthesis of nanoparticles through biological method which also known as green synthesis is eco-friendly and non-expensive method. This review gives idea about how silver nanoparticles are produce by using microorganisms and plant extract and their mechanism for biosynthesis. This review also shows an insight on wide application of silver nanoparticles in various fields.

Keywords— Nanobiotechnology, silver nanoparticles, green synthesis, microorganisms.

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