IJOEAR: June 2017

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-3, Issue-6, June 2017

Assessment of Post-Harvest Loss and Waste for Date Palms in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia

Abstract Estimated dates loss at harvest time include shees & besr, eating by birds, falling, insects and dust mite, and healthy fruits of three cultivars from the date palm orchards in al-Ahsa Oasis (Khalas, Shishi and Ruzeize), in Al-Qaseem (Sukkary, Khudry and Segae), in Madinah (Safawi, Anbara, Ajweh). In Riyadh (Khalas, Sagei and Nabtet Seif). The highest losses during harvest time in Al-Ahsa were in Khals, then comes Shishi then Ruzeize. In Qaseem, the least affected variety was Sukkari, then Khudri then Segae. In Medina, Anbara was the most affected variety then comes Safawi then Ajweh. In Riyadh, the most affect variety was Nabtet Seif then comes Khalas then Segae. The average level of loss during the marketing phase was about 5-10 % in most varieties and locations except Ajweh in Riadh (<5%), and Shagra in Qassem (16-20%). The major causes of waste were the dates’ small size, and cuts and browses.

Photography analysis showed that dates are dramatically affected by various pest infestation and non-pathological disorders. The average of general dates disorders or dates damages was 12.6%, which represents the percentage of dates loss of most commonly ones in the major date production regions in Saudi Arabia. In addition, eleven dates variety commercially available were collected at Alahsa dates retail market which produced by the major production regions; Alahsa, Riyadh, Qaseem and Madina. The data showed that the average of general dates disorders or dates damage were the highest for Shishi and Shbibi in AlAhsa (33%), while the lowest was for Ajweh in Medina (2.7% only).

Keywords— Post-Harvest Loss, Waste, Date Palms, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, harvest time.

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Hydrogen Bonding – The Key to Desalination (A Review)

Abstract Energy crisis today is a major matter of concern. Energy is the most essential ingredient in the process of economic growth and development. The search for alternative sources for various unit operations such as evaporation, drying, distillation, etc. has been in continuum but without much success. Industries being the major consumers of energy, its efficient usage and minimal wastage are of profound importance.

ETPs or Effluent Treatment Plants are one of the components of a majority of the industry where a lot of energy is consumed. In every ETP, separate equipments are present to treat salt water. Desalination techniques such as Flash and Multi Effect Distillation in thermal, Electro dialysis and Reverse Osmosis (RO) in membrane category and many other processes such as freezing and humidification are used. For instance RO today is the most commonly used method for desalination. But the problem that accompanies it is that RO rejects concentrated brine solution every time it is used. This massive tonnage of salt water is then sent through a set of Multi-Effect Evaporators which not only increases the cost but majorly increases the energy requirement. The real problem with all the methods used is the need optimum economic designs and higher efficiency requirements thus making it both eco-friendly and economical for the industry. Modifications and innovations such as Incorporation of vacuum in humidification system increases the evaporation rate of water due to reduction in boiling point. In Electrodialysis, ion exchange resins are incorporated between the electrodes which help separate out ions into continuous streams. These provide continuity to the process and also enhance its rate. But still the need for energy turns out to be the major issue. This paper suggests an alternative innovative technique reduction in h bonding of water that can virtually eliminate the excessive energy needs in these processes.

Keywords Desalination, RO, Electrodialysis, Humidification, Solvents.

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Comparative Analysis of the proximate Composition of palmyrah pinattu and flours (Odiyal, Boiledodiyal)

Abstract Palmyrah (Borassusflabellifer) fruit is mostly used as fresh fruit, because of its perishable nature it is traditionally preserved as dried fruit pulp called as pinattu (fruit leather). It contained pectin as well as contain appreciable amount of saponinbecause of that fruit pulp having important medicinal properties. Considering these facts the phytochemical constituents of solvent extracts of pinattuwas identified and evaluated. Samples was collected from the three different branches ofPalmyrah Development Board.

Pinattu, boiled odiyal flour and odiyal flour contained 16.6±(0.008), 11.66±(0.001), 10.66±0.001 g/100g of moisture, 2.23±0.062, 6.51±0.062, 6.7813±0.06 g/100g of protein, 0.08±0.001, 0.28±0.008, 0.43±0.013 g/100g of Fat, 0.04±0.001, 0.02±0.0003, 0.02±0.0002 g/100g of Ash, 5.06±0.01, 7.13±0.18, 4.49±0.15 g/100g of crude fiber and (75.91±0.61, 74.37±0.65, 77.59±0.5 g/100g of carbohydrate respectively. There were significant different (p<0.05) between the each samples for all the nutrient content except moisture content.

Keywords Pinattu, Odiyalflour, Boiled odiyal flour, Nutritional.

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Continuously flow microwave pre-treatment for enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of dairy industry sludge

Abstract Our research has focused on the investigation of the applicability of continuously flow microwave pre-treatment process for anaerobic digestion of dairy industry sludge. In the continuously flow operation effects of microwave specific process parameters, i.e. specific irradiated energy and microwave power level, were examined on the biogas yield and anaerobic digestion rate. Furthermore, the efficiency of process was characterized based on energetic analysis, as well. Our results show, that depend on the irradiated energy level the microwave power has effect on biogas yield, and determine the biodegradation rate, as well. Higher energy irradiation or higher power has been manifested in enhanced anaerobic digestion, but over a certain value of them led to worsened methane content. Considering the results obtained from energetic analysis can be concluded, that microwave pre-treatment followed by anaerobic digestion is efficient if irradiated energy was kept lower level (100 kJ L-1, in present experiments) with microwave power levels of 536 W, or 700W, respectively. Too high energy intensity at high power level, or too low microwave power, independently from the extent of irradiated energy, led to higher energy demand of pre-treatment, than can be recovered as energy content of surplus biogas.

Keywords anaerobic digestion, biogas, energy efficiency, microwave, sludge.

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Preservative Effects of Different Treatments and Their Flavor Acceptability in Cashew Apple and Pineapple Blend Juice

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the stability of a cashew apple and pineapple blend juice (25:75 v / v). Various treatments were applied, including pasteurization (92 C, 15 min), aqueous extract of ginger (2.5 and 10%) and potassium sorbate (1g/kg). The physicochemical results revealed that the addition of the aqueous extract of ginger caused an increase in the content of ascorbic acid, total sugars, proteins and minerals such as magnesium, potassium, phosphorus and zinc. The microbiological analysis showed lower microbial counts of the treated samples compared to the control. The different treatments could have an antimicrobial effect. The sensory analysis reveals a general acceptability for all the samples formulated. This acceptability value is higher for the sample supplemented with 10% aqueous extract of ginger. With a view to preservation without chemical preservatives while improving nutrient content, the 10% aqueous ginger extract could help extend the shelf life of fruit juice drinks.

Keywords Drink, pineapple, cashew apple, preservatives, quality.

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Utilization of Marginal Soils with Application of Phosphorus and Ethephon for Sweet Corn (Zea mays L. saccharata) cultivation

Abstract Abundance of marginal soils is among the major constraint to achieve high yield for crop production due to unsuitable physical and chemical properties of the soils. Commonly, farmers would manage the marginal soil by adding soil amendment, compost and fertilizer which increase the cost of production. Alternatively, application of fertilizer together with plant growth regulator (PGR) during crop management can be practiced to utilize the marginal soil effectively. The aim of this experiment was to determine effects of phosphorus (P) fertilizer and PGR namely ethephon on growth performance of sweet corn grown in three marginal soils namely Rasau, Kuah and Dampar. The treatments were arranged as factorial randomized complete block design with four rates of P fertilizer and standard rate of ethephon replicated four times. The results indicated that the physical properties of the marginal soils vary which Rasau dan Kuah series have low content of silt (10.30% and 36.10%), respectively and clay (9.40% and 11.86%) while Dampar series has low sand content (21%). Consequently, Dampar series depicted highest soil moisture content (18.80%) compared to Rasau and Kuah with high content of silt and clay at 42.43% and 36.43%, respectively. At tasseling stage, where application of P fertilizer with combination of ethephon at 0 and 15 kg P2O5 ha-1 there were significant difference between soil series on root length, total biomass wet and dry weight but exception for total biomass dry weight at 0 kg P2O5 ha-1. Moreover, at 45 kg P2O5 ha-1 there were significant difference among soil series on leaf number and total biomass dry weight whereas at highest P rate of 60 kg P2O5 ha-1 only root length and root volume were affected. Most of the results were observed highest on Rasau soil series which contain highest sand particle instead of silt and clay compared to Kuah and Dampar series. However, the addition of ethephon and several P rates did not affect plant height among soil series. The results suggest that, the marginal soil can be utilized for sweet corn production by addition of combined P fertilizer at low rate and PGR.

Keywords— Zea mays L. saccharata, marginal soil, phosphorus, ethephon, plant growth.

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Evolution of the fruit market in the city of Lavras-Minas Gerais-Brazil

AbstractFruit growing has achieved advances through the use of new technologies generated by research. In Brazil, it is one of the most prominent sectors in agribusiness, achieving significant results and generating business opportunities. In this way, the fruit market has grown considerably in the last decades, both in quantity and in quality. Allied to this, the changes in consumer behavior regarding food consumption has been responsible for the increase of the fruit market. The objective of this work was to know the evolution of the fruit trade in the city of Lavras, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, in relation to the quantity sold, monetary value, losses in the gondolas of retail establishments and per capita consumption of the population of this city.

KeywordsMarket, Fruits, Consumption, food, Brazil.

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Technical Efficiency of Soya Beans Production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria

Abstract The study was conducted to evaluate the technical efficiency of soya bean production in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria. The objective of the study was to examine the inputs and output relationship of soya bean production in the study area. A multi stage random sampling techniques was used to select 80 respondents in the study area who were noted for soya beans production. Primary data were collected from the respondents with the aid of structured questionnaire and were analyzed using stochastic frontier function. It was therefore recommended that inputs such as seeds, fertilizers and agrochemicals which were the major inputs that increase the output of soya bean production in the study area should be made available on time, in right amounts and at affordable prices to the farmer’s stakeholders in agriculture. Proper orientation and knowledge should be given to people willing to go into the cultivation of soya beans on the appropriate time of planting. Extension services should also be rendered effectively.

Keywords— Soya Beans production, Adamawa state, Nigeria, Mubi north, Nigeria.

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The effect of organic mulch on the growth and yield of Spinach (Spinacia oleracea L)

Abstract An experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at the Luyengo campus of the University of Swaziland to determine the effect of organic mulch on the growth and yield of spinach. The experiment was conducted between the months of January and February, 2017. The experiment was a completely randomized design (CRD), with treated sewage mulch (TSM) and organic compost mulch (OCM) as treatments. The no mulch (NML) was used as a control. Spinach seedlings were planted at a spacing of 15 cm within rows and 30 cm between rows. Weeding and pest control measures were done uniformly across the treatments, when and as required. The data collected included the percentage moisture retained by the different treatments on the soil, growth parameters (leaf width, leaf length, leaf number, leaf area, plant height) and yield at harvest. The results displayed a significant difference (P<0.05) between the treatments in terms of the moisture retention properties. Organic compost mulch recorded the highest mean percentage moisture retention (22.9%), followed by treated sewage mulch (20.9%) and no mulch recorded the lowest percentage moisture retention in the soil (14.4%). All the growth parameters were higher for spinach growth under TSM, followed by that grown under OCM. They were lowest under spinach grown under no mulch. The differences in mean for parameters were significant (p<0.05). The yield also varied across the treatments as TSM had a dry mass of 43.0 g, followed by OCM at 23.4 g and the no mulch treatment recorded a dry mass of 20.9 g. The results showed that mulching improved the performance of the spinach plants in terms of plant growth, moisture retention and yield.

KeywordsCompost, mulch, organic, sewage, spinach.

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Long term effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties and availability of nutrients in a Typic Hapludalfs under maize-wheat cropping

Abstract To study the long term effect of integrated nutrient management on soil properties and available nutrients, surface and subsurface soil samples were drawn from the long-term field experiment (LTFE) which is in progress on a Typic Hapludalfs at Research Farm of College of Agriculture, CSK HPKV, Palampur, Himachal Pradesh, India since Rabi, 1972. The rotation followed was maize-wheat and the treatments included various combinations of N, P, K, Zn, lime, hand weeding and farm yard manure. Results from the study showed that integrated nutrient management over the years resulted in improvement in the soil properties as well as status of available nutrients in the soil at both the depths. Continuous application of urea as a source of N has resulted in acidification of soils (pH 4.3) while lime application increased the pH to 6.2 in the surface soil and 6.0 in subsurface soil. The treatment 100 % NPK + FYM resulted in 66 per cent increase in soil organic carbon content over initial value. Similar effects were recorded on cation exchange capacity and available nutrients. It can be concluded from the study that integrated nutrient management is essential to maintain soil health.

Keywords Integrated nutrient management, soil properties, long-term effect.

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