Abstract— The State Haryana is known for its major crops like wheat and rice and stands at the second largest contributor of food grains in India. Just like that Haryana ranks second in milk production. Dairy farming is also a form of agriculture in which milk is extracted from cow, buffalo, goat etc. then it sell by vendors from different rural and suburb regions to informal sector agents or to cooperative agents. This milk distributed further in different ways. Milk production is no more subsistence in nature and organized sector is a best example to prove it because cooperatives is an independent association of persons those fulfill their economic needs and distribution of milk and milk products is all a business as we can see it in “Haryana Dairy Development Cooperative Federation Ltd.” This federation is famous by vita brand which was opened by the Haryana govt. on the pattern of Amul.
Keywords— Dairy, Federations, Informal sector, Milk Production, Organized sector.
Effect of Percent and Stage of Leaf Defoliation on the Quality of Sugarcane, at Arjo – Dedessa Sugar Factory, in Western Ethiopia
Abstract— The research was conducted at Arjo-Didessa Sugar Factory which is located in East Wollega Zone of Oromia Regional State with the objective to determine the effect of leaf defoliation at different stages of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) on the quality. Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is unusual among field crops in that it is not the seed that have economic values, but rather the stalk. Sucrose is extracted from the large stalks that are produced by sugarcane plants. The effect of percent and stage of leaf defoliation on sucrose content as well as recovery percentage of sugar cane is still unknown. Effect of leaf defoliation at three different stages on quality of sugarcane juice was studied under field conditions. The methodology used include seven percent of leaf defoliation comprises of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50%, 60% and 0% as a check and three growth stages of defoliation at 9, 10 & 11 month of sugarcane was arranged in Randomized Complete Block Design. The results depicted that, significant variation among leaf removal and cane age was noted for quality parameters. Thus, significantly higher percent of sucrose percent (11.70%) at 30% of leaf removal and (11.50%) at20% of leaf removal were obtained from 11 and 10 month age of NCO-334 sugarcane variety respectively ,however, lower percent of sucrose (9.03%) at 11month age was recorded from undefoliated (check).In addition to these results the sugar cane plants that could be partially defoliated with changing sucrose production and retention of defoliated leave between furrow providing advantage, that increase soil moisture leads to water conservation especially for sugarcane grown under rainfall condition like Arjo Dedessa sugar factory, reduce weed growth, and prevent substantial losses of C and N due to sugarcane leaf burning at harvesting time. However, further future research is required to strengthen the investigation by confirming similar research on different location are necessary to recommend to all Ethiopian sugar factories.
Keywords— sugarcane, defoliation, stage, quality.
Economic Analysis of Fluted Pumpkin (Telfaria Occidentalis) Production in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria
Abstract— The study was carried out to analyze the economics of fluted pumpkin production in Ibadan metropolis. A total of 80 fluted pumpkin farmers were selected using multistage sampling method. Data were collected using a set of questionnaire. Analysis of the data obtained from the questionnaire was carried out through the use of descriptive statistics such as frequency, percentage, profit function analysis, gross margin and multiple regression analysis. From the analysis, all the farmers interviewed were literate. From the gross margin analysis, fluted pumpkin production was found to be a profitable venture in the study area. The profit function analysis result of R2 (0.8910) showed that 89.01 percent of the variability in profit in explained by the combined effect of the variable price items in the function. This is indicative of the price variable for output price had a positive significant effect on the profit level of farmers. The regression result showed that the coefficient for farming experience was positive and significant at 5 percent level. Recommendations from the study area include among others, government should provide inputs such as chemicals and planting seed at subsidized rate to farmers and also aim at solving the problems in vegetables production.
Keywords— Gross margin, Profit function, Production, Fluted Pumpkin, Chi-squre.
Abstract— Mycoplasmas can be associated with several canine health issues, mainly when dogs do not respond to antimicrobial treatment usually aimed at bacterial infections. Different mycoplasma species can be found in both healthy and sick animals; however, the following subjects have yet to be fully understood: The role played by mycoplasmas in canine habitats and the various diseases caused by them. The aim of the present study is to assess the presence of mycoplasma in dog samples at NUDMIC/UFF, RJ, Brazil, over a timeframe of ten years. Out of all assessed dogs, 9.67% (15/155) had respiratory symptoms, whereas the rest of them were asymptomatic. Moreover, 29.96% of the cultured samples (77/257) were positive for mycoplasmas. Typical colonies of said samples were divided into 42.86% (33/77) of oropharynx samples, 51.95% (40/77) of urogenital samples and 5.19% (4/77) of samples from other sources. Species Mycoplasma canis, Mycoplasma edwardii and Mycoplasma cynos were identified by PCR and/or immunoperoxidase. The most common species was M. canis. M. cynos was found in a dog with signs of respiratory disease. Despite the recent improvement in early identification and the biomolecular knowledge surrounding canine mycoplasma, the etiopathogenesis of canine mycoplasmosis remains uncertain..
Keywords— Diseases, dogs, isolation, Mycoplasma, PCR.
Effect of Genotype by Environment Interaction (GEI), Correlation, and GGE Biplot analysis for high concentration of grain Iron and Zinc biofortified lentils and their agronomic traits in multi-environment domains of Nepal
Abstract— Lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. culinaris ) is a cool season food legume contains the high quality of proteins and minerals. Selecting genotypes for high mean yield and yield stability has been a challenge for lentil breeders. The complexities of genotype × environment interaction (GEI) make selection difficult to identify the best performing and most stable genotypes. Therefore, this study was carried out to apply a GGE biplot and AMMI analysis model to evaluate the magnitude of the effect of GE interaction on grain yield of 25 lentil accessions at three environments during the year of 2016 and 2017 seasons in alpha-lattice design (5×5) with three locations and to evaluate relationships between test environments for identification of favorable genotypes for lentil production areas. Combined pooled mean analysis of variance for grain yield tested at three environments over the two subsequent years 2016 and 2017 showed that highly significant differences in genotypes, environment and G x E interaction effect indicating the possibility of selection for stable accessions. The stability of the assessed genotypes using some stability statistics derived from three types of statistical concepts (variance and regression analyses), AMMI (additive main effect and multiplicative interaction) analysis and GGE biplot (genotype main effects and genotype-by-environment interaction effects) models were applied to obtain good understanding of the interrelationship and overlapping among the used stability statistics. Research results showed that lentil accession WBL-77 (1451 kg ha-1) , RL-79(1446 kg ha-1) and PL-4(1429 kg ha-1) were the best performer and well adopted across the environments and over the years. AMMI analysis of variance for lentil grain yield (tha-1) of lentil accessions tested at three environments over the years showed that 80.71% of the total sum of squares was attributed to environmental effects, only 8.38 % to genotypic effects and 10.90% to genotype × environment interaction effects. The partitioning of GGE sum of squares through the GGE biplot analysis showed that PC1and PC2 accounted 74.75%, and 25.24% of GGE sum of squares respectively over the years. Accessions ILL8006, RL-6, Shital, ILL3490 and simal were more close to the center point and indicated that stable across the environments. In another words, the genotypes which have low stability value (ASV) is said to be stable and the breeder chose the stable genotypes along with grain yield above the mean grand yield. In this experiment accessions RL-6(G-2) ranked 1st stability (ASV-0.53) followed by Simal (ASV-2.05), ILL-3490 (ASV-2.42) and Shital (ASV-2.72) and suitable for all environment.
Keywords— Stability parameters, lentil, GGE biplot, AMMI-additive main effects and multiplicative interaction; ASV–AMMI stability value.