Occurrence of Alternaria alternata causing leaf spot in Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in Prayagraj area of Uttar Pradesh, India
Abstract— Among the pseudo-cereals grown in India, Fagopyrum esculentum Moench is known as Common buckwheat and the most cultivated species in the hilly region of India. This is a short duration, multipurpose and nutritious crop which can withstand changing climatic conditions and fit well in multiple cropping systems. At remote locations of mountain ecosystems, buckwheat is a livelihood driven crop for small and marginal farmers. Buckwheat grains are primarily used for human consumption and also for livestock, poultry and piggery feeds. Rural population of hilly region of India use buckwheat sprouts and as pancakes especially in breakfast however, the recommended intake of buckwheat sprouts are less than 40 g/day. Furthermore, it is also grown as cover crop, green manure crop, fodder crop, fertility restoring crop, honey crop and medicinal plant. The crop is also a good source of Rutin (quercetin-3-rutinosid) and Fagopyrin that are known to be used in preventing various human disorders. In January 2020 occurrence of disease on buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum) in the research field of SHUATS, Prayagraj Uttar Pradesh in India was observed. Black spot symptoms were noted on leaves with an approximate incidence of 50%. The disease symptoms are chlorotic leaf spots caused by Alternaria alternata uniformly distributed and having concentric margins. They are circular, oval or oblong in shape. Each spot has gray centre and brownish margin.
Keywords— Alternaria alternata, Buckwheat, Leaf spot.
Abstract— Various studies and reports expect that due to great potential and increased demand on consumer’s side, dairy market in Kerala will grow at a CAGR of 15.7 percent during 2021-2026. But the reality and projection are quite different. Due to the involvement of many factors like lack of infrastructure facilities, transportation, interference of intermediaries, less bargaining capacity and lack of knowledge about the marketing conditions Kerala’s milk marketing is facing a huge challenges and constraints. Recent studies found that more than 70 percent of milk is sold to dairy cooperative society which implies that a traditional marketing channel dominates in Kerala. In this study, Ernakulam district have chosen. Ernakulam, which has over 330 co-operative societies of Milma in the district, faces a shortage of 70,000 litres per day. This gap is met by importing milk from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka. It indicates that there is a huge scope for dairy market in Ernakulam due to the steady increase in demand on consumer’s side. But recent studies reveal that the existing marketing conditions are not favourable to farmers. Therefore, in this context, the marketing strategy adopted, various milk marketing channels, the reasons for choosing, price received and quantity of milk sold to these stakeholders/channels on the producer’s side to be studied in detail. All these aspects are covered under this study. Present study tries to help the government and concerned department in taking appropriate actions for boosting the milk market in Ernakulam district by giving equal importance to both production and marketing side.
Keywords— Consumer, Distribution channels, Marketing, Milk, Producer.
Abstract— Biofertilizers are gaining tremendous importance in agriculture due to the detrimental effect of chemical fertilizers on plants and soil health. It consists of living beneficial microorganisms that enhance plant growth and maintain soil health by using different mechanisms. For improving the soil health along with the growth of plants Efficiency of biofertilizers depends upon different factors such as quality and formulation of inoculant, total number of living microbes, and shelf life. .Therefore it is very important to discuss the shelf life of biofertilizers and another alternative such as use of fresh biofertilizers. Fresh biofertilizers is a concept that emphasises immediate use of biofertilizer after production to ensure maximum microbial count and hence is a revolutionary idea in the field of agriculture. So this study shows the importance of fresh biofertilizer in improving soil health and plant growth.
Keywords— Microorganisms, Shelf life, Fresh biofertilizer, Soil fertility.
Irrigation Water Quality Assessment for Water Resources Used in Irrigation of Agricultural Fields of Kütahya – Alayunt Village
Abstract— This study was conducted to assess the irrigation water quality of deep wells in Kütahya- Alayunt village and to assess the salinity-alkalinity of agricultural fields irrigated with these waters. The pH values of water samples taken in May, June, July, August and September varied between 7,12 – 8,57 and electrical conductivity (EC) values varied between 563 – 1483 µmhos/cm. According to US Salinity Lab. Classification System, water samples were classified as C2S1 (moderately saline – low alkaline) and C3S1 (highly saline – low alkaline). Differences were observed in irrigation water quality criteria throughout the irrigation season. Soils of the research site had loamy (L) and clay-loam (CL) textures. Soil pH values varied between 7,23 – 7,94 and EC values varied between 485 – 1652 µmhos/cm.
Keywords— Irrigation, irrigation water quality, soil salinity.