Factors Influencing Cassava Farmers’ Choices of Climate Adaptation Strategies in Rainforest Agro-Ecological Zone of Southwest, Nigeria
Abstract— Evidences from literature and past studies have revealed that climate change has influenced agricultural productivity leading to declining global food production. The study was to examine the effect of climate change adaptation strategies on cassava production in Southwest, Nigeria where rain forest agro-ecological zones (AEZ) was chosen for the study. The study used multi-stage sampling procedures, with the aid of well-structured questionnaire, to select 150 cassava producers. Data analysis was done using descriptive statistics and multinomial logit model. From the study, it was revealed that cassava farmers in the study area were relatively young, fairly educated, mostly married, well experienced, adequately aware of climate change, but operated on a small scale. Factors influencing the choice of these climate adaptation strategies were; sex, age, farm income, years spent in school, labour availability, amount of credit obtained intensity of temperature. It is therefore recommended that government should provide adequate extension services with knowledgeable and skilled extension agents who are equipped with climate useful information, thereby making the farmers aware about the available adaptation strategies to climate change and the benefits inherent in them; farmers, via extension agents, should be encouraged to use improved varieties of cassava as adaptation strategy in order to achieve increased output and multiple planting dates should be embraced by the cassava farmers.
Keywords— Cassava farmers, climate adaptation strategies, multinomial logit.
Use of Crop Ranking Technique for Quantitative Evaluation of Landuse in Ahmednagar District in 1960-61 and 2010-11
Abstract— The net sown area, current fallows and land under tree crops and groves are included in agricultural land use. Use of land is an important factor for planning process because of the finite nature of land resource. Ahmednagar district in Maharashtra covered an area of about 17 lakh hectare comprising nearly 73.52percent area under net sown area in 1971-1972. Area under forest decreased slightly, area not available for cultivation decreased by 0.52 percent, other uncultivated area increased by 0.38 percent, while fallow land decreased by 0.92 percent during that period. Among the talukas, overall volume of change is greater in Nagar, Sangamner, Shrirampur and Newasa tahsils probably due to dynamic conditions existing there.
Keywords— Land Utilization, Fallow land, Net Sown Area.
Physico-Chemical and Bacteriological Analysis of Waste water from Hospital “Case of Centre University Teaching Hospital of Kigali”
Abstract— Hospitals produce relatively huge amount of wastewater containing pathogenic microorganisms, toxic, laboratory and pharmaceuticals residuals, disinfectants, biodegradable, polluters and radioactive contaminants that are potentially threats to population health and the components of environment when they are discharged without proper treatment.
The purpose of the study was the assessment of water quality effluent from CHUK wastewater treatment plant (CHUK WWTP) by analyzing physico-chemical and bacteriological parameters. Sampling has been take place at different points and time better understanding of how hospital unit operations affect the effluent quality. A sum of twelve (12) samples were collected in three (3) trials at four (4) different points in Nyarugenge, Gitega and at the border with Kimisagara sector especially Mpazi stream where CHUKWWTP’s effluents are discharged. Samples collection, conservation, preparation and measurement took place at university of Rwanda-college of science and technology (CST) laboratory.
The obtained results at WWTP outlet, at point of meeting with Mpazi stream, Mpazi stream and mixture of Mpazi stream with CHUK effluent were Cu (0.06, 0.07, 0.05 and 0.07mg/l); Fe (0.13, 0.037, 0.037 and 0.034mg/l); Pb (0.021, 0.024, 0.024, and 0.027mg/l); Hg (0.0015, 0.003, 0.003 and 0.004 mg/l) respectively. pH (7.25, 812,7.74 and 7.4); COD (215.5, 122.4, ,145.5 and 187.2mg/l); BOD5 (29.3, 30.85, 29.4 and 27.3 mg/l); TN (3.29, 2.97,3.2 and 3.46 mg/l); TP (1.05, 0.91, 0.92 and1.05mg/l); NH4+(7.46, 8.5,7.5and 8.8 mg/l); TSS (77, 56.5,62.8 and 69.1mg/l); fecal (282, 263,270, and 273 CFU/ml) and TC (233, 213, 224 and 210 CFU/ml). These parameters are prescribed within the reference limits of Rwanda Standard Board (RSB) and World Health Organization (WHO) standards, thus they have no negative side impact and effects on the receiving environments and their components.
Keywords— hospital wastewater, physico-chemical, bacteriological -analysis.
Abstract— The purpose of this study is to determine the characteristics of the carcass of pigs reared in the south of Côte d’Ivoire. The work involved 320 pigs from pig farms in the district of Abidjan and around Abidjan, and a few pig farms in the provinces of Côte d’Ivoire. The animals are left on fasting in the SIVAC slaughterhouse park on the eve of slaughter. On the day of slaughter, the animals are weighed on the ground and after slaughter; the pigs are gutted, split before the carcass weight is determined. The lean meat content of the carcasses is determined by the manual method, using the grading slider ZweiPunkt (ZP), and then the carcasses are classified according to the EUROP grid. The study reveals that the pigs slaughtered at the SIVAC slaughterhouse have an average live weight of 89.1 ± 13.6 kg. The average carcass weight is 66.5 ± 11.2 kg and the average carcass efficiency is 74.71 ± 4.5 %. Most pig’s carcasses are in class E where the estimated lean meat content is greater than or equal to 55%. Female pigs are predominantly less fatty than castrated male pigs, with estimated lean meat content greater than or equal to 55 %. These results confirm that the pigs reared in Côte d’Ivoire are less fat and partially meet the nutritional needs of the population.
Keywords— pigs, lean meat, carcass, Côte d’Ivoire.
Evaluation of the Biological Efficacy of Fungus and Bacteria Isolated from Mushroom Substrates against Pathogenic Fungi
Abstract— In vitro efficacy of fungus and bacteria isolated from mushroom substrates were evaluated against selected pathogens (Fusarium oxysporum, Sclerotium rolfsii, and Colletotrichum corchori). There were four fungi Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Trichoderma harzianum, and Penicilliumsp and four bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas sp. and Paenibacillus polymyxa isolated from substrate. Different biochemical and pathogenicity test were performed to confirm their species. In in-vitro dual culture method T. harzianum showed the highest inhibition in case of Fusarium oxysporum (70.26%) followed by Sclerotium rolfsii (59.94%) and Colletotrichum corchori (57.02%) whereas Penicillium sp showed the least significant result against these pathogens. To inhibit the growth of Sclerotium rolfsii and F. oxysporum. Pseudomonas spp. was significant around 72.19% and 62.62% respectively. On a comparative study among the four isolated bacteria and fungi Pseudomonas sp. and T. harzianum showed the best significant antagonistic activity against all the selected plant pathogenic fungi.
Keywords— In vitro, isolated, mushroom substrates, dual culture, pathogenic fungi.
Effects of NP and Biofertilizers on Growth and Some Yield Attributes of Sunflower Helianthus Annus L
Abstract— A field experiment was carried out in the demonstration farm of Sudan University of Science and Technology, College of Agricultural Studies, Shambat, for two consecutive seasons 2014/15 and 2015/16 to determine the effects of synthetic N (urea) and P (superphosphate) fertilizers and/or microbial biofertilizers on plant height (cm), number of leaves per plant, shoot and root dry weights, head diameter and 1000 seed weight of the sunflower hybrid Shambat. Nitrogen and phosphorus were applied at 100 and 50 kg/feddan, respectively. Biofertilizers were applied as a mixture of Azospirillum Brasilense (a nitrogen fixer) and Bacillus megaterium var. phosphaticum (a phosphate solubilizer). A combination of synthetic and biofertilizers was applied in addition to the control. NP treatment gave the highest values of growth parameters in the first season followed by biofertilizers. In the second season biofertilzers then their combination produced the highest values. Head diameter and 1000 seed weight were enhanced by NP fertilizers. Significant differences in the first season were found only between NP and the combination of NP + AB in the number of leaves per plant and root dry weight, and in the second season the same treatments were significantly different only in shoot dry weight.
Keywords— Sunflower, biofertilizer, nitrogen, phosphorus, growth.
Abstract—The construction industry is among the leading sectors in economic growth of Rwanda. Most of construction projects failed to maintain their schedules, and remain within budgetary costs; this despite there being knowledge of project management practices introduced in construction project. Generally this study aimed to investigate influence of project management practices on construction project in Rwanda. 99 survey questionnaires were administered to 99 active contractors and consultants registered in RPPA. It was found that 91.9 % of respondents confirmed that they applied project management practices in their daily assignments however 74.7 % got skills from experience, therefore majority in industry are not professional managers. Construction planning like risk plan, communication plan are not done satisfactory, 77.7% confirmed that risk plan analysis is less applied; few analysis done the top management involvement is not satisfactory, uncertainties contribute a lot in time and cost overruns. Other researches revealed that the best organization structure is project-based and matrix while it was found that in Rwanda 85.8 % confirmed the functional structure, the later was proved not suitable in multidisplinary projects. The study concluded that industry has not professionals in management therefore less application of management practices. The contractors and consultants are recommended to encourage their engineers to go ahead management classes or profession trainings (PMI, PRINCE 2, AGILE….) to save the construction industry.
Keywords—Construction projects, organization structure, effective project manager and risk analysis.