IJOEAR: March 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-3, March 2021

Determinants of Farmer’s Participation in Soil and Water Conservation Practices in North- Central Highlands of Ethiopia

Abstract Soil erosion is the major threat in the highlands of Ethiopia. Even if large number of conservation campaigns have been undertaken, the efforts are less effective, because of low intention to farmer’s participation in soil and water conservation (SWC) works. The objective of this study was to identify determinants of farmer’s participation in soil and water conservation (SWC) in Borena woreda, north-central highlands of Ethiopia. Samples of 148 households were selected following Stratified, proportional sampling technique. Household survey, focus group discussion, and key informant interview methods were used to collect primary data. Secondary data were also collected from Woreda agriculture office, published, and unpublished documents. Both descriptive statistics and Binary logistic regression model using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 20 were used to analyze the data. About 76.35% of the respondents were participants. However, 57.52% of participants were without their interest. The binary logistic regression results showed that perception, extension service, training, and slope of their land found to have a positive and significant influence on farmer’s participation. Whereas, age of household head and off-farm income found to have negative and significant influence on farmer’s participation in SWC practices. When farmers get extension and training service, they become willing to participate in SWC practice because they acquire necessary information and skill. Therefore, the Woreda Agricultural office should provide extension service and encourage farmers training for the sustainable management of the land and its productivity.

Keywords— Binary logit model, Borena Woreda, Determinants, Extent, Farmer’s participation, SWC.

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Study of the influence of a Bioabsorbent derived from Orange Peel on a filtering soil using seawater irrigation by capillarity

Abstract— The effect of rain on our planet has been the most important meteorological phenomena to be reproduced by humans. It has been vital for the hydration of the soil, making it possible for agriculture to prosper and progress. However, the great secret of irrigation is in the ground, in the water tables and aquifers that store and manage water, storing every drop of rain and distributing the water through the underground river basins, indirectly irrigating everything, from the mountain to the sea, making the cultivation of crops possible. This means that the type of soil is as important as the water supply.

Irrigation for agriculture has always simulated rainfall; therefore, it has copied irrigation from above and has focused on the soil drainage capacity. From this point of view, saline water is not beneficial for this activity, but it may be the only source of irrigation water for arid regions, especially in developing countries, where there’s a scarcity of water and the population is rapidly growing. Storing irrigation water for both agriculture and the increasing population is necessary for the developing country’s prosperity.

The use of seawater applied to irrigation is not a new technique, there’s evidence that proves that in 1719 the Sestao’s Carmelite monks, located in Vizcaya, made use of this practice.

When considering the possibility of irrigation without desalination, always through capillarity systems, it is essential to consider some critical factors, such as the substrate of the ground, the distance of the water table, the salt composition of the seawater, chemical reactions of the ground with the salts or the drainage of the ground. Modifying any of these parameters can cause salinization effects, loss of humidity or desertification of the substrate, amongst others.

This study shows the influence of a bio absorbent obtained from the orange peel on the behaviour of a substrate based on silicon sand.

Keywords— Desertification, Desalination, Reusable, Seawater Table, Bioabsorbent.

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Production of Vermicompost from Rose Flower Petal Wastes

Abstract The flower waste obtained from markets and temples could be effectively utilized for vermicomposting and production of good quality vermicompost. Eudrilus eugeniae species is good for vermicomposting of flower waste at shorter time period. The results obtained proved that 30% inclusion of flower waste along with cow dung gives good yield of vermicompost. Eudrilus eugeniae does not require soil for habitation. Provision of good quality cow dung enhances the water holding and nutrient supplying capacity. Maximum temperature (27.96oC) was recorded in VT6 and pH ranged between 7.58 and 8.76 in all treatments. VT6 treatment also showed the maximum electrical conductivity (3.94 mhos/cm). 42.50% of Organic Carbon was observed in VT2. A high concentration of N (0.59%) was found in VT5 treatment and phosphorous (0.68%) in VT4. The maximum weight of earthworm (3080 mg) was achieved in VT5 with a growth rate of 24 mg/worm/day. High yield of vermicompost (1422gm/2kg of substrate) was also obtained in VT5 treatment. The present study revealed that the temperature at a range of 260C, pH 7.5 to 8 and moisture content of 49 to 50% were the ideal parameters to activate metabolic activity, cocoon production and reproductive action of Eudrillus eugeniae..

Keywords— Earthworm, Eudrillus, Vermicomposting, Flower wastes, Rosa berberia.

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Striving for restoration of wetlands functions and values in the City of Kigali

Abstract— This work aimed to present the commitment of the Government of Rwanda of relocating all illegal activities from wetlands in the framework of environmental protection; to highlights human activities established into wetlands of Kigali City and their categories; and to mention some initiatives of restoration. Its scope is limited to governmental policies presentation and analysis, to the presentation of different activities that degrade wetlands in the City of Kigali and to highlight some initiatives for restoration.

Documentation, camera and field survey were used in data collection and ArcGIS 10.2 was used as software for spatial analysis and presentation and the survey covered all districts of the City of Kigali. Activities that harm wetlands include: residential home, commercial activities, industrial activities, parking, garages, ware houses, carpentry and welding workshops, dumping sites, bricks burning, petrol stations, carwash, schools, health centers, worship houses, domestic animal growing and play grounds.

Relocation of these activities is the enforcement of the environmental law and the government commitment to environment management. Some of these activities were legally established and their relocation has to be compensated and those illegally established will not be compensated. Many of these wetlands will be left into conservation in order to recover their functions of storing and releasing water and buffering the impacts of floods; providing habitat for plants and animals; providing water storage, improve water quality and reduce pollution, etc. Some few other will be made up into recreational areas like Nyandungu Recreational Park, Kimicanga Entertainment Center and Gikondo wetland parks.

Keywords— biodiversity, ecosystem, Kigali, restoration, wetlands.

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The Biochemical Indices of Drought Resistant Species of Iori Plateau (East Georgia)

Abstract Existing forecasts of climate change predict significant warming, seasonal precipitation change, and strong and frequent droughts in the coming decades. Drought resistant plant species have more chance to survive. Predictions make the study of the biology of drought-resistant species especially relevant today. Antioxidant system, which plays an important role in plant stress resistance, is of special interest. Moreover, antioxidant substances are characterized by healing properties as well. Mechanisms of drought resistance of plants growing on arid territories of Georgia are practically unexplored. Presented study aimed to investigate the characteristics of antioxidant system of leaves of drought resistant species (Euphorbia falcata L. (sickle spurge), Lycopsis orientalis L. (small bugloss), Cotinus coggygria Scop. (smoke tree), Elaeagnus angustifolia L. (Russian olive) and Amygdalus communis L. (almond)) growing at one of the most arid regions of Georgia – Iori plateau (East Georgia). Analyses were made in two vegetative phases – flowering and fruit-bearing. From the obtained results, it is clear that the studied species have more or less different biochemical stress-adaptive mechanisms, which include certain enzymatic and non-enzymatic components of antioxidant system. In small bugloss in response to stress catalase was activated and synthesis of ascorbate-tocopherol and anthocyanins was enhanced; especially high amount of proline accumulation was noted. Phenols, anthocyanins and proline should be actively involved in stress resistance of sickle spurge. Russian olive was distinguished with high levels of ascorbate-tocopherol and anthocyanins, as well as proline; in addition the enzymatic antioxidants – catalase and peroxidase were activated, and soluble carbohydrates were accumulated. The protective systems of ascorbic acid and tocopherol, as well as phenolic compounds were active in smoke tree. From osmolytes content of proline increased, while the level of soluble carbohydrates was already the highest, compared to all tested species. Catalase was activated in response to stress in almonds; protective systems of ascorbate-tocopherol, phenols, and anthocyanins were active as well; among osmolytes content of carbohydrates was increased. The stability of carotenoids protective system of all studied species under stress conditions presumably indicates that experimental plants are less sensitive to radiation stress, and water deficiency is the main stress factor for them.

Keywords— antioxidants, drought resistance, osmolytes.

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Physical Properties of Non-Fermented and Fermented Tobacco of Burley Varieties and Lines

Abstract— The physical properties of the raw material are an objective indicator of the quality of the tobacco leaves and a reflection of their structure. They are very closely related to the structure and the content of the organic matter in the leaf. The selection of the variety, the applied agricultural techniques, the environmental conditions during the vegetation period, the leaf position, the technological maturity, as well as the conditions during drying, are important factors that have a strong impact on the formation of the physical and technological properties of the tobacco raw material. The tests included 4 varieties and 2 lines, namely: L-8 (control variety, Zimbabwe), Kentucky-22 (USA), B-963 (Bulgaria) and B-1246 (Bulgaria), all in fertile form, as well as the male sterile hybrid lines B-204/15 CMS F1 and B-206 A/15 CMS F1. The test was planted in 4 repetitions with a planting density of 90×50 cm according to the Randomized Block System method. After the evaluation of the tobacco according to the current Rulebook for qualitative evaluation of raw tobacco, we separated tobacco material from the middle belt, in order to get an insight into the differences of the physical properties from the examined varieties and lines in the non-fermented and fermented tobacco. The percentage portion of the main (mid) rib, the thickness of the leaves, and the materiality of the leaves, are important physical indicators of the quality of the raw material, and from the obtained results we can point out the line B-206 A/15 CMS F1, where the average content of the main rib of the non-fermented tobacco leaf is within the limits of 26.82%, in the line B-206 A/15 CMS F1 there is up to 25.13% portion of the main rib of the fermented leafs. The leaf portion in the newly obtained line is within the range from 73.18% (non-fermented tobacco leaf) to 74.87% (fermented tobacco leaf). The materiality is within the range from 41.26 g/m² for non-fermented tobacco leaf up to 41.90 g/m² for fermented tobacco leaf, and the leaf thickness is 91.5 μm (non-fermented tobacco leaf) up to 77.2 μm (fermented tobacco leaf).

The obtained data from non-fermented and fermented tobacco, the content of the main rib (%), the thickness of the tobacco leaves (μm), the materiality of the leaves (g/cm2), are determined according to recognized methods that are being applied in the operation of the accredited laboratory – L04 within the Department of Technology, Fermentation and Fabrication at the Scientific Tobacco Institute Prilep.

Keywords— non-fermented, fermented, tobacco, burley, leaves.

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Application of Termite Bait with Variation of Methyle Eugenol, Pineapple Peel Extract and Bintaro Liquid Smoke

Abstract— One of the alternative methods of termite control that can be done is the feeding method. In this study, impregnated bait will be formulated with Pineapple peel extract and Bintaro liquid smoke which functions as a poison for termites. To attract termites to eat poisonous bait, 1% of an attractant compound in the form of methyl eugenol is given to the artificial bait. The concentrations of liquid smoke used were 2 and 4%. Pineapple peel extract is known to have antifeedant activity (reduces appetite) against pests that eat it. The active ingredients in this extract have the ability to damage the digestive mucosa of termites and kill the termite symbiont protozoa so that the ability of termites to digest can be decreased or lost. The concentrations of pineapple peel extract used in this study were 3 and 6%. Based on data obtained from data on time of death, percent mortality and percent palatability of termites to bait, it shows that the best treatment is treatment K7 which causes highest termite mortality for 12 days with palatability of bait is 7.55%.

Keywords— termite, bait, toxic, pineapple peel, bintaro.

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The Political Economy of Agricultural Development in Northern Nigeria

Abstract— The paper critically examines the political economy of agricultural development in Northern Nigeria. The agriculture resource has been a significant sector in the Nigerian economy in the past decades, and is still a key sector regardless of the oil boom; principally it provides employment opportunities for the teeming population, eradicates poverty and contributes momentously to the growth of the economy. The Agricultural sector suffered neglect during the hey-days of the oil boom in the 1970s. However, sustained economic development cannot be achieved without economic growth. Consequently, economic growth is necessary for sustained economic development. In the same vein, given the enormous resource endowment both in human capital and natural resources available in Nigeria, the performance of the Northern Nigeria economy has been far below expectation. Consequently, the contributions of agriculture to economic growth can be examined through the roles of the sector in the economy. The most direct contribution of agriculture to economic growth is to increase in incomes of smallholder farmers and therefore their purchasing power. The economic growth in Nigeria depends to a large extent on growth in the agriculture sector. However, the article reveals some factors that negatively impacting agricultural development in Nigeria include land tenure systems; increasing populations and constantly decreasing farmland size; inadequate of capital particularly for the adoption of improved agricultural technology; never-ending conflicts in the Northern Nigeria; throng rural-urban migration; low level of education; systemic corruption of government officials; excessive dependence of oil economy to the exclusion of agricultural economy; unfavourable economic development policies; inadequate infrastructure among others.

Keywords— Political, Economy, Northern Nigeria, Oil boom, Agriculture, Development.

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Influence of Presowing Irradiation and High Concentrations of Salts on Wheat

Abstract To investigate the salt resistance of Georgian endemic wheat species – Makha (Triticum aestivum subsp. macha (Dekapr. & Menabde) McKey) and Zanduri (Triticum timopheevii subsp. zhukovskyi (Menabde & Ericzjan) L. B. Cai) on the one hand, and the effect of pre-sowing irradiation on growth and development of the same species, on the other, experiments with 1.5% solutions of NaCl and Na2SO4 and pre-sowing treatment with ultraviolet irradiation (UV) (C section of the ultraviolet, distance 30cm from the source, irradiation for 1h) have been carried out. Wheat species were affected with stressors separately and in combination. The percentage of seed germination and length of 5-6 week seedlings was studied. Obtained results demonstrate that:

  1. Zanduri seeds are equally resistant to both chloride and sulfate salinization, while Makha seeds revealed more resistance to chloride salinization.
  2. Irradiation of Zanduri seeds with C section of UV-radiation inhibited germination, while treatment with the same spectrum of Makha seeds in contrary, led to significant activation of the process. This effect of seeds pre-sowing irradiation was maintained during the growth and development stages as well.
  3. Pre-sowing UV treatment of Makha seeds has canceled the inhibitory effect of NaCl on seed germination; while in variants with pre-sowing UV treatment and further processing with Na2SO4 and Na2SO4+NaCl even the stimulation of seed germination was mentioned.
  4. In order to increase the seed resistance to chloride and sulfate salinity, we consider it advisable to irradiate Makha seeds with UV before sowing; however, the optimal dose of radiation should be selected.

Keywords— chloride salinity, sulphate salinity, ultraviolet irradiation, wheat.

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Enriched Mesquite Piperidine Alkaloid Extract Improves the Performance in Growing Goats

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate levels of enriched mesquite piperidine alkaloid extract (MPA) comparison with sodium monensin on the nutrition and growth performance of goats fed diets with high concentrate content. Thirty Anglo-Nubian crossbred goats, 120 days of age, and initial body weight 21.82 ± 0.11 kg were distributed to the following diets: 0 (no additive), with MPA 9.2, 18.4, and 27.6 mg kg-1 or monensin (MON) 2.7 mg kg-1. The diets with MPA did not differ (P > 0.10) from the MON diet for the intake and digestibility of DM and OM. However, NDFap and CP intake (g kg-1 BW0.75), MON showed a higher mean compared to MPA, and their digestibility coefficients did not differ. There was a linear increase (P < 0.05) for the intake and digestibility of CP and NFC with the MPA levels. The metabolizable energy (ME) and daily weight gain (DWG) presented a quadratic effect (P < 0.05) with peaks estimated at 17.4 and 14.8. There was no difference (P > 0.10) for microbial nitrogen synthesis, and microbial efficiency decreased linearly (P < 0.05) with the MPA levels, but MPA did not differ (P > 0.05) from the MON. Nitrogen retention (NR, g day-1) increased (P < 0.05) with the MPA levels due to the linear increase of N intake (NI) and digested nitrogen (DN). For the diet with 27.6 mg kg-1 MPA, the DWG decrease occurred due to the lower digestible energy intake and microbial protein synthesis efficiency.

Keywords— Growth Promoter, Performance, Phytogenic Additive, Prosopis Juliflora, Rumen Fermentation.

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Impacts of Illegal Mining on Human Being, the Case of Huye District

Abstract The current study was about the impacts of illegal mining on wellbeing of people. More specifically the study intended to:

  • identify illegal mining practices in Huye District;
  • Assess the social, economic and environmental impacts of illegal mining on wellbeing of people of Huye District.
  • Find out solutions to social, economic and environmental impacts of illegal mining on environment and wellbeing of people of Huye District.

Keywords— Huye District, Illegal Mining impact on Human.

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