IJOEAR: May 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-5, May 2021

Groundnut Cultivation: A Novel Approach using Organic Input

Abstract The groundnut or peanut is one of the important legume crops of our world, produced over an area of 5.4 million ha and production of 5.43 million tones with a productivity 910 kg/ha. High profitability along with sustainability can be attained in groundnut with proper fertility management and by organic farm practices. In the recent years organic farming has gained significant importance by supporting sustainable crop production and due to its eco-friendly benefits. Organic farming system in groundnut emphasis the use of vermi-compost, FYM along with other organic amendments like bio-fertilizers, bio-pesticides etc. and hence paving way for production of organic and healthy peanuts.

Keywords bio-fertilizers, organic peanuts, bio control-agents, disease management.

Papers Highlights:

  • Significance of cultivation of groundnut using organic inputs.
  • Role of bio-fertilizers in groundnut cultivation.
  • Use of organic manures in producing healthy peanuts.
  • Pest and disease management in groundnut using bio-control agents.
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Use of Basil Ocimum basilicum and Chrysoperla externa (Chrysopidae) in Agroecological Management of Rosebushes

Abstract The intensive cultivation of flowers in a greenhouse often presents low diversity of plant species and this limits the preservation of natural enemies for pest control. Floral resources may provide multiple ecosystem services and promote regulation of pest populations in greenhouses. Chrysoperla externa (Chrysopidae) is a predator of various pests in the Neotropical region. The purpose was to evaluate the effect of basil (Ocimum basilicum) and C. externa releases on agroecological pest management in rosebushes and compare it with conventional management. The greenhouse with rosebush ‘Carolla’ was divided in two parts, one side with diversified rosebush (rosebush + basil + C. externa releases) and the other side with conventional rosebush (insecticides, acaricides and fungicides). Arthropods were sampled weekly in the rosebushes and basil. The abundance and diversity were different between the systems evaluated. Greater abundance of natural enemies and pollinators was observed in the diversified rosebush. Basil has attracted a greater diversity of natural enemies and had a positive effect on pest control in the rosebush. In conventional rosebushes most insects were phytophagous. The production and quality of roses were not influenced by the treatments. Agroecological pest management favors the biological control in rosebush cultivation in greenhouse.

Keywords— Biological control, Floral resources, Habitat management, Natural enemies, Roses.

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Microbial and Nutritional Evaluation of Fresh and Wastewater Cultivated Cabbage in Quetta, Pakistan

Abstract Using wastewater for agricultural irrigation presents potential risks to public health and the environment. The aim of this study was to compare the microbial burden and nutritional components of cabbage grown in fresh and wastewater in Quetta, Pakistan. Cabbage samples randomly collected from fields irrigated with fresh and wastewater sources were analysed for viable bacterial and fungal counts, pH and vitamin contents. There was a significant difference in viable bacterial (3.0 × 106, 1.9 × 107 CFU g-1) and fungal (2.4 × 103, 1.0 × 105 CFU g-1) counts for cabbage grown in fresh and wastewater, respectively. There were no significant differences in pH (7.88/7.86) and contents of the vitamins thiamin (0.31/0.30 mg/100 g), riboflavin (0.05/0.04 mg/100 g), niacin (0.56/.54 mg/100 g), pyridoxine (0.13/0.12 mg/100 g) and ascorbic acid (57.00/56.60 mg/100 g). Results demonstrated that cabbage grown in wastewater had a significantly higher microbial burden than cabbage grown in fresh water, although there were no significant differences in nutritional components of cabbage from the different water sources. These observations emphasise the potential dangers to public health in using wastewater for agricultural irrigation.

Keywords Agricultural irrigation, Bacterial count, Brassica, Public health, Vitamins, Water resources.

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Production of Exportable Agricultural Commodities in Nigeria

Abstract The aim of this study is to evaluate the production of exportable agricultural commodities (cocoa, cashew and ginger) in Nigeria. Three hundred and seventy (370) exporters were interviewed for this study. Findings revealed that half of the respondents’ source for their seedlings through purchase of certified seeds. Almost 33.5% of the respondents plant Brazilian cashew, 30% plant both yellow and black ginger varieties while 37% of them majorly plant Forastero cocoa varieties due to their high demand. Results showed that most of the respondents (26.2%, 36.8% and 33.5%) supplied the highest volume of agricultural commodities (cashew, ginger and cocoa) in year 2012 and earn more in the same period. Findings indicated that land (36.2%) is the major cost component that had the highest impact while transportation (34.6%) is the main cost component that steadily increases among others. Government should provide services on trade support to aid access to global markets.

Keywords Production, agricultural commodities, exportable, cost.

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Implementing a Capacity Development Initiative to Build Resilience to Better Adapt to Climate Change: A Case Study in Ethiopia, Africa

Abstract A five-year capacity development initiative called Small-scale and Micro Irrigation Support (SMIS) Project has been funded and launched in Ethiopia by the governments of the Netherlands and Canada in close collaboration with the local government in the year 2014. The project has been mobilized to expand the capacity of agriculture and water sectors that will use the newly-provided technologies to increase yields and quality of their agricultural products as well as to strengthen their resilience to better adapt to climate change at four Ethiopian states including the state of Tigray. The capacity building plan in the Tigray state has been implemented in eight-pilot woredas (villages) and twelve running pilot irrigation schemes. To bridge the identified capacity gaps, many regional and woreda level agriculture and water sector staff as well as the farmers have been trained using the SMIS Project six-stage capacity development strategy. The progression of several related key indicators was continuously traced using the performance measurement framework (PMF) method and the results were communicated to the stakeholders utilizing results-based management (RBM) approach. The intermittent outcomes have shown that the implementation of SMIS Project capacity development initiative has created landmark changes and outstanding qualities among the relevant institutions, staff, and farmers in the pilot schemes of all sub-regions in the Tigray state. The project has promoted more efficient institutions and was able to train many skillful farmers to build resilience to better adapt to climate change when it strikes. This paper will discuss and present the project outline and its partial achievements until the project midterm.

Keywords— Adapting to climate change, building resilience, capacity development, small-scale irrigation, food security.

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