IJOEAR: November 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-11, November 2019

Impact of Solid Waste Management Practices on Environmental Protection Case of Kicukiro District

Abstract This Solid waste management practices are essential component of environmental infrastructure in human settlements; its poor management can lead to health problem and environmental destruction in general, this study was conducted in Kicukiro district. The data were collected on the sample of 97 households and some authorities through questionnaires, and interview and were analyzed using SPSS Version 20 (statistical tools) and this helped in generating tables and performing descriptive statistics like percentages, frequency, and mean.

The results obtained revealed that that in terms of waste segregation is explained excluding solid wastes from liquid wastes considering the mean of 2.73 which was interpreted as high mean. Those results influenced the grand mean to become 2.04 which is interpreted as low mean. This means that waste segregation practices is not efficiently done in households located in Kicukiro. It was revealed that transportation of wastes is characterized by the short time of loading wastes considering the mean of 2.91 which is interpreted as high mean. The findings revealed that the environmental protection in Kicukiro District is characterized by the following: little harmful materials (plastic packages) in the soils considering the mean of 3.18. This showed that there is link between solid waste management practices and environmental protection in Kicukiro District. For proper practices of waste management which is positive but only for waste transportation to have a significant relationship with environmental protection considering the correlation coefficient of 0.259 and the p-value or Sig.(2-tailed) of 0.010 which is below the p-alpha of 0.05. It is recommended that Kicukiro District has to launch a sustained, education and communication campaign informing residents on the importance of managing waste properly and its importance to their health, the environment and cleanliness of the city or use another waste reduction strategy in order to encourage recyclable production of goods to allow access to recyclable products.

KeywordsSolid Waste Management, environmental protection.

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Technical Efficiency of Tuong-Mango by Translog Production Function: Implication for Cooperative and Non-Cooperative Famers in the Southern Vietnam

Abstract This study employed a Translog stochastic production frontier function to estimate the level of technical efficiency and its determinants among mango farmers in the southern Vietnam. The results of the analysis showed that cropping season of mango growers have been round year. The difference of the study from past researches was efficiency comparison of three seasons instead of only focusing on efficiency of one season or total a year, especially was compared between cooperative and non-cooperative farmer groups. The findings revealed that technical efficiency mean of cooperative farmer category was greater than that of non-cooperative farmer category in season 2. However, technical efficiency mean of cooperative grower group was lower than that of non-cooperative grower group in season 1 and season 3. Results from the study showed that adjustments in the input factors could lead to improved productivity of mango. More so, positive determinants of technical efficiency of cooperative farmer group were land area plant density in three seasons, wrapping bag in season 1 and season 2, education, credit, payment for agro-input wholesale and classifying sale in season 3 while the negative factors were age, credit and payment for agro-input wholesale in season 2. Turning to non-cooperative farmer group, the positive determinants of technical efficiency were land area in three seasons, market access in season 2 and season 3 and payment for agro-input wholesale and wrapping bag in season 2 whereas the negative elements were farming experience in season 1.

Keywords— Technical efficiency, Tuong-mango, cooperative, the southern Vietnam.

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Optimization of antibiotic activity of composites of ethanolic extracts of flower of Mangifera indica, Gongronema latifolium leaves and Citrus sinensis peel using the mixture experimental design of the response surface methodology

Abstract The generation of pathogenic microorgannisms is overwhelming the potency, safety and cost of synthetic antibiotics. The study south insight for the use of plant materials to fight microbes and optimized antibiotic activity of pure, binary and ternary blends of ethanol extracts of flower of Mangifera india, Gongronema latifolium leaves, Citrus sinensis peel on Streptococcus aureus using the Simplex Lattice {3,3} mixture experimental design of the response surface methodology (RSM). Fourteen (14) blends of the plants’ parts were produced and tested on the S. aureus. Inhibition zones inhibited by the extract blends ranged between 11-19 mm. Blends C and BC exhibited the highest value of 19 mm. Other blends equally exhibited some inhibition effects on the growth of the test microorganism, however, decreasing in values as their proportions in the blends carried. ANOVA on the data revealed that the model of the experiment was significant (p<0.05; R2=0.8350), the pure; A, B, C, and the ternary blends, ABC, were significant in the model (p<0.05). Although other blends were n ot statistically significant (p>0.05), the graphic and the equation indicated their positive contributions to the model. The model showed overall mean inhibition zone of 14.11 mm compared to 22.5 mm observed in Levofloxacin on the test organism. The study showed that ethanolic extracts of the plants’ parts could provide the basis for engineering and synthesis of potent antibiotics.

Keywords Synthetic antibiotics, shynergism, Simplex Lattice design, antibiotics activity, zone of inhibition.

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Trends and Pattern of Crop Diversification in Kheri District, Uttar Pradesh, India

Abstract Crop diversification in India is visualized as the shift from traditionally cultivated less remunerative crops to more remunerative crops. The process of crop diversification is a result of government efforts, market conditions, and farmers’ decisions according to the physical conditions of a particular area. The study has been carried out considering Lakhimpur Kheri district as the study area. The crop diversification was estimated by applying three techniques given by Gibbs and Martin, Bhatiya and Singh. Two agricultural years 2006-07 and 2016-17 are taken for the study. The study focused on the spatial comparison in which the block is the minimum unit area for the analysis. The maps for the spatial distribution of crop diversity are generated in the Arc GIS 10.2.2. A change in the crop diversification in a decade has also been examined. There was great similarity in the results by applying all the techniques, but there was some exception in some cases. The results show that, in 2006-07, the diversification was high in the northern and southern blocks like Nighasan, Dhaurehra, Isanagar, Mitauli, and Pasgawan while the blocks lying in the western and central region registered the low intensity of diversification. While, in 2016-17, southern blocks registered high crop diversification and the diversification was low in the central region in almost all the techniques applied.

Keywords Crop diversification, Agriculture, Kheri District, Indian Agriculture.

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