IJOEAR: November 2020

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-6, Issue-11, November 2020

Inoculation of (Prosopis Laevigata) by Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi in Different Doses of Organic Matter in Two Types of Soil

AbstractThe mesquite tree (Prosopis laevigata), besides its conventional uses, has a high potential to recover agricultural areas with salinity problems. It improves the physical and chemical properties of the soil, and in the rehabilitation of degraded arid and semi-arid zones, or those tending to desertification.The aim of this research was to test the effect of organic fertilization and inoculation with Glomus sp. on mesquite trees. We did the experiment under greenhouse conditions. The effect of applying Glomus sp. and organic matter in different doses during the growth of shoots and roots was evaluated in 13 agronomic variables in mesquite seedlings grown in Lithosols and Xerosols soils. We used a complete randomized block design with three replications. After 180 days, we analyzed the data using Statistical Analysis Software (SAS) version 9.2. We observed a positive and significant effect on the growth of the agronomic variables studied under greenhouse conditions, and inoculation with Glomus sp. The organic matter factor presented significant differences (p ≤ 0.05). We determined that the ideal dose was 55 g per experimental unit. According to the soil used, positive effects (p ≤ 0.05) were observed for 50% of the agronomic variables in the Xerosols soil with relation to the Lithosols soil. We concluded that the inoculation of Prosopis laevigata with Glomus sp., and adding organic matter favors the growth of both the shots and the roots of the plant.

Keywords— Earthworms, Glomus sp., Lithosols soil, mesquite tree, vermicompost, Xerosols soil.

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Cattle Ticks and Risk Factors Related to Tick Infestation of Livestock in Periurban Farms in Southern Cote D’ivoire

Abstract Tick-borne diseases are a global public health problem, particularly in sub-Saharan Africa, where most of the disease is caused by malaria and many other diseases of viral, parasitic or bacterial origin. This study aimed to identify the bovine tick’s species in cattle farms and to determine possible risk factors related to tick infestation in Abidjan district and Azaguié commune. Thus, in July 2019, thirteen (13) herds distributed in these localities were visited for tick sampling and to conduct epidemiological investigations. At each visit, ticks were harvested from 15 cattle per herd. All the farms visited were infested with ticks. 96.92% of sampled animals had ticks. A total of 1796 ticks were collected of which 89.42% (1606) were adults, 10.41% (187) were pupae and 0.17% (3) was larvae. Two species of ticks have been identified, Amblyomma variegatum with 25% of the population and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus with 75%. 96% of the cattle were infested by ticks of the species R. (B.) microplus and 56% of the cattle were infested by ticks of the species A. variegatum. The co-infestation of cattle by the two identified species was 53%. The distribution of the sexes showed that in the species A. variegatum, males were more numerous (13.44% for males and 8.76% for females). However in the species R. (B.) microplus, females were more numerous (5.08% for males and 62.3% for females).The analysis of risk factors associated with tick infestation in cattle has shown that factors such as Undefined parks, Type of pasture, Training in the use of acaricides and Presence of wild animals contribute to major ectoparasite infestations in cattle. Tick samples collected from peri-urban farms in the district of Abidjan and the locality of Azaguié as part of this study, indicate that the relatively recent introduction of the species Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus presents a threat to animal and human health.

Keywords— Ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Risk factors, Côte d’Ivoire.

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Rubber Tree Cultivation and Improvement: Biological Aspects and the Risk of Inbreeding Depression

Abstract Rubber trees (Hevea spp.) are among the essential plants cultivated and have contributed to Malaysia’s economy growth for many decades. Latex harvested from rubber trees is an irreplaceable raw material and accounts for a wide range of uses in tires, tubes, footwear, rubber gloves, and other rubber-based products. There were many attempts to produce ideal rubber tree for increasing latex yield production through the improvement programmes since 1950s. However, the risk of inbreeding depression and the planting materials produced from the chosen parents that are closely related in the improvement programmes is fairly high. Inbreeding depression caused discouraging effects such as uneven bark surface, leaf disease infection, easily damaged by wind blows and eventually reducing the production of latex yield overall. This review highlights the important of biological aspects for latex production in rubber tree and seeing minimizing the risk of inbreeding depression with the necessity of broader genetic base in the rubber tree cultivation and improvement programmes.

Keywords— Inbreeding depression, genetic base, rubber.

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Malting Sludges as Soil Amendment

Abstract Residual sludge that results from the treatment of malt house effluents produced during the malting of barley in malt house (Argentina) was evaluated to determine its fertilising potential and capability for improving soil as a way to reuse or recycle this material. The Cabildo soil (Southwest of Buenos Aires Province), of the typic Argiustoll subgroup had a sandy clay-loam texture and was tested in this field experiments. This soil plots (4 m2) were amended with equivalent malting sludges doses of 5, 15, and 25 Mg/ha. When biosolids, like malting sludges, are incorporated as an amendment, many micronutrients are provided. Chemical properties of the soil, particularly the pH, EC (Electrical Conductivity) and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC), were improved. Dactylis glomerata L. were utilised as growing crop (forage) in this field test, productivity ( Dry matter) and quality (protein %) gave results following 0,205 kg/m2 and 11.94 % at control in comparison with 0,4 kg/m2 and 15.15 % of amended soil. Calcium concentration in grasses was significantly different for control (4651 mg/kg-1) in comparison with high sludge dose (8907 mg/kg-1), the same trend was found with micronutrients like Copper and Molybdenum. This result from field test indicate that this residual sludge constitutes a suitable amendment for agricultural soils, increasing quality and productivity of Dactylis glomerata L and improving several soil properties.

Keywords— Malting Sludge, Soil Amendment, Forage.

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In-Vitro Studies of Different Culture Media and Biocontrol Agents on Growth and Sporulation of Alternaria Alternata (Fr.) Keissler an Incitant of Broad bean (Vicia Faba L.) Leaf Blight Disease

Abstract Studies on different culture media and biocontrol agents on growth and sporulation of Alternaria alternata (fr.) keissler causal organism of Broad bean (Vicia faba L.) leaf blight disease was conducted in vitro. Six culture media was tested for growth and sporulation of A. Alternata. It was found in that in liquid broth media, Potato dextrose broth (607 mg, dry weight of mycelium) and in solid media, maximum linear growth recorded in Potato dextrose agar (90 mm) with maximum number of spores 6.2 x 103 spores/ml. The antagonistic studies of 5 fungal biocontrol agents in dual culture technique found that all biocontrol agents statistically produced a significant antagonistic effect on linear growth and sporulation of A. Alternata. Maximum linear growth inhibition of Alternaria alternata was found in Trichoderma harzianum (17.5mm) with 89.6% inhibition and at par with Trichoderma viride (19.5mm) with 84.4% inhibition followed by T. hamatum (22.3 mm) with 74.1% inhibition and Gliocladium virens (21.0 mm) with 70.6% and minimum significant inhibition effect in T. koningii (22.8 mm) with per cent inhibition of 67.2 over the check. Highest spore inhibition of was found in T. harzianum (89.6%) and T. viride (84.4%) followed by T. hamatum (74.1%) and G. virens (70.6%) while minimum inhibition was found in T. koningii (67.25). It was further observed that T. harzianum could overgrown the growth of pathogenic fungus within 2 days and for T. viride within 3 days where as T. hamatum and G. virens took 5 days.

Keywords— Alternaria alternata, blight disease, broth media, solid media, efficacy, linear growth, sporulation, mycelium, biocontrol agents.

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The Impact of Population Growth on Natural Forests in Rwanda

Abstract Deforestation is a growing problem in many parts of the tropical world and one of the affected countries is Rwanda. The general objective of this study is to assess the effect of population growth on natural forest resource in Rwanda in general. Thus, this research focused on assessing the impact of population growth on natural forest of Rwanda. It critically examines how the population growth can impact natural forest. To achieve the set objectives, a cross sectional research design was combined with qualitative and quantitative approach. We collected secondary data from National Statistics Institute of Rwanda (NSIR), Ministry of Environment (MOE), Rwanda Environmental Management Authority (REMA), etc. The study adopted descriptive approaches in processing data. The findings show that above 45.27% of natural forests have been lost from 1984 to 2015 due to the high rate of population growth in Rwanda. As a recommendation, faced with a dense and rapidly increasing population on a fragile land resource, Rwanda must take steps towards transforming the economy and eliminating poverty through a Green Growth program. Family planning must be also adopted in reducing the impact of population growth on natural forestry preservation.

Keywords— Population Growth, Natural forests, Deforestation.

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Factors Influencing Adoption of New Irrigation Technologies on Farms in Morocco: Application of Logit Model

Abstract The objective of this article is to identify the determinants of the adoption of new irrigation technologies in Moroccan agriculture. The research is carried out on a sample of 82 farmers from the Souss-Massa region (Morocco). The results from the estimation of a binary logit model show that the variables: Age, level of education, non-farm income, perceived utility, possession of a computer, farm size, access to credit, ease of use, influence the probability of adoption of new irrigation technologies among farmers. The theoretical and managerial implications of this research are discussed.

Keywords Precision agriculture, technology adoption, irrigation, logit model, Souss-Massa region.

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Evaluation of the Development of Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) in Two Soil Types with Interaction of Bacterial Cells and Vermicompost

Abstract— In this study, we tested the growth of two varieties of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) cultivated in two types of soils and the effects of the inoculation of seeds with cells of bacterial strains and vermicompost. (H. sabdariffa) are a member of the Malvaceae family and an important plant because its calyxes are used to produce beverages, prepare food, in the textile industry, cosmetology, perfumery, medicine, etc.

This research was carried out at the Postgraduate College, Montecillo Campus, Mexico. The experimental design was completely randomized blocks with a factorial arrangement (4x3x2): four levels of organic matter factor, three levels of bacterial strains factor, and two levels of soil factor with three repetitions. The variables tested were: germination percentage (GP), plant height (PH), stem diameter (SD), the number of leaves (NL), foliar area (FA cm2), radical volume (RV cm3), dry aerial part biomass weight (DAPBW), dry root biomass weight (DRBW), dry calyx biomass weight (DCBW) and chlorophyll content (CC). The effects of soil and bacterial strains showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) on the agronomic characteristics of (H. sabdariffa) plants. The organic matter factor only presented significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in the germination percentage and growth variables of the vegetative phase.

To increase crop production, the use of wastewater and microorganisms is proposed. Vermicompost exploded the percentage of germination, height, the number of leaves and stem diameter during the first weeks of growth, presenting important results in Creole variety (farmers’ local variety). By inoculating seeds with cells of bacterial strains, A9m and A7 helped significantly to stimulate plant growth, finding a better response in A9m strain. The effects of soil factor showed significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) in soil irrigated with residual water over agronomic characteristics satisfying the nutritional requirements of the crop.

Keywords— Germination percentage, Malvaceae, Soil microorganisms, Organic matter, Wastewater.

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Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil of Industrial Area, Dewas, Madhya Pradesh, India

Abstract A study has been conducted to assess the heavy metal contamination in soil of Dewas industrial area of Madhya Pradesh, India. Total eight locations and one control location were selected in Dewas industrial area for soil quality monitoring w.r.t. heavy metals. The nine soil samples were monitored for heavy metals such as Chromium (Cr), Manganese(Mn), Nickel (Ni), Copper (Cu), Zinc (Zn), Iron (Fe), Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb) and Cobalt (Co) analysis during different four quarters from April 2019 to March 2020. The heavy metal contamination with w.r.t. Contamination Index (CI), Pollution Load Index (PLI) study in selected locations in Dewas industrial area has been done. Over all Pollution Load Index of soil was found greater than 1 which shows polluted soil w.r.t. heavy metals at all selected monitoring locations in Dewas industrial area of Madhya Pradesh, India during this study.

Keywords— Industrial Area, Soil, Heavy Metals, Contamination Index (CI), Pollution Load Index (PLI).

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Bacteriological Characteristics of Spring Water in Ambo Town, West Shoa Zone, Oromia Region, Ethiopia

Abstract Present study was carried out to assess the quality of spring waters in terms of microbiological and chemical characters from Ambo. The results of the study revealed that chemical parameters such as pH (6.36-7.94),TDS(407-1041mg/L), DO(1.5-5.85mg/L),TS (1170-495mg/L), total alkalinity (313-1277mg/L), total hardness (38-1274 mg/L),COD (70.5-9mg/L)in the “Hora” water were higher than the maximum permissible levels of WHO standards for drinking waters. Total aerobic mesophilic bacterial counts tested were found to be as0.977×104 cfu/ml for SFWS, 2.35 ×104cuf/ml for CDSTRM,1.14×104cfu/ml for HB,0.553×104 cfu/ml for HD and2.72×104for Huluka streams samples. The “Hora” water contained different coli forms when tested by most probable number (MPN) method found to be in the order of 0.66 × 102 cfu/ml for SFWS, 39 x 102 cfu/ml for CDSTRM, 0×102 for HB, 0×102forHDand28×102cfu/ml for Huluka stream. The water samples from the different “Hora” water sources showed significant variations with respect to bacteriological and chemical characteristics during study period. Statistical analysis showed significant difference (p <0.05) in the distribution of total coli form, and aerobic mesophilic heterotrophic bacteria at various sampling locations. The study concluded poor water quality in terms of bacteriological and chemical characteristics of “Hora”water sources as all the parameters were well above WHO prescribed standards.

Keywords Ambo town, bacteriological & chemical characteristics, Hora spring water, Huluka river, water quality, WHO standards.

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