In-vitro screening of indigenous botanicals of Manipur for anti fungal activities of Helminthosporium oryzae an incitant of brown spot disease of rice and efficacy test at different level of concentrations
Abstract— Eleven indigenous plant species of Manipur viz., Mariandra benghalensis, Millettia pachycarpa, Allium hookerii, Flogacanthus thyrsiflorus, Solanum incanum, Tithonia diversifolia, Goniothalamus sesquipedalis, Solanum surattense, Artemisia nilagarica, Ocimum canum and Zanthozylum acanthopodium which has been used as local medicine and spices were collected from five district of Manipur viz. Tamenglong, Senapati, Kangpokpi, Imphal east and Imphal West. In –vitro screening of above indigenous botanicals of Manipur was studied for anti-fungal activities of Helminthosporium oryzae an incitant of brown spot disease of Rice. The first five botanicals with maximum inhibition was found in Solanum incanum with 52.44% followed by Allium hookerii (47.77%), Millettia pachycarpa (36.66%), Mariandra benghalensis (24.44%) and Flogacanthus thyrsyflorus (17.77%) over control. Efficacy test at different level of concentrations i.e. 10%, 15% and 20% of standard botanical extracts was evaluated against growth of fungus both in broth and solid culture media. However, among botanicals maximum per cent inhibition on biomass production was found at 20% concentrate of S. incanum with growth inhibition of 74.03%, followed by A. hookerii (62.66%), M. Benghalensis (46.36%) and F. thyrsiflorus (42.33%) growth inhibition over the untreated control. In solid media test maximum per cent inhibition on radial growth of test fungi was found at 20% concentration in treatment of S. incanum with growth inhibition of 72.70% over control followed by A. hookerii (59.81%), M. Pachycarpa (45.03), M. benghalensis (37.59%) and F.thyrsiflorus (28.70%) over the untreated control.
Keywords— Botanicals, Rice, Helminthosporium oryzae, Manipur.
Short Communication: Interactive Association of fungus and root-knot nematodes on Sarnalli crop (Ipomea Reptans)
Plants develop close association with many soil microorganisms especially with fungi and nematodes under field conditions that are either beneficial or harmful to plants. (Goswami et al., 2000) The fungus nematode interactions are numerous, varied and provide open field for significant research. (Goswami and Mittal, 2002) Fungus is an essential component of the interacting system of fungus—nematode complex disease and plays an important role in the disease etiology. Since the publication of Atkinson’s report (1892) that Fusarium wilt of cotton was more severe in the presence of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.) than in its absence, a large volume of data has been accumulated to date which firmly establishes the involvement of plant-parasitic nematodes in interactions with fungal plant pathogens on various crop plants. (Mittal and Goswami, 2002) In the present paper an attempt has been made to study the fungi associated with root-knot nematodes from trans-Yamuna river belt of Delhi infecting Sarnalli crop (Ipomea reptans).
Abstract— This study on the ground water quality status of various locations in Dewas industrial area of Madhya Pradesh India. Study of physico-chemical parameters of ground water was carried out during different four quarters from April 2019 to March 2020. Nine monitoring locations in Dewas industrial area were selected for this study. Ground water monitoring was performed as per standard guidelines followed by Central Pollution Control Board and analyzed by standard methods. It is concluded that high contamination w.r.t. total dissolved solids, chlorides, fluorides, nitrate, sulphate etc. in ground water observed at few locations in Dewas industrial area during this study and water quality if compare with drinking water standard BIS, 10500 (2012). The ground water quality does not meet the standard. The deterioration of ground water quality may be due to impact of industrial activities.
Keywords— Industrial Area, Ground Water, Water Pollutants, Water Quality.
Effects of Different Levels of Seaweed (Eucheuma spinosum) on the Sensory Qualities and Selling Price of Fish Balls
Abstract— The study aimed to determine the sensory qualities and selling price of fish balls with the different levels of seaweed (Eucheuma spinosum). Five treatments were applied in this study; Control (0 seaweed), T1 (25% seaweed), T2 (50% seaweed), T3 (75% seaweed), and T4 (100% seaweed). Experimental samples were laid out using a completely Randomized Design (CRD). Different samples were subjected to sensory evaluation and selling price determination. Results were analyzed using ANOVA and DMRT when treatments were found to be significantly different from each other. Results revealed that different combinations of fish and seaweeds significantly affected the sensory qualities of fish balls in terms of color, aroma, flavor, texture and general acceptability. The treatment with the least amount of seaweed added showed the highest sensory score in all the sensory parameters.
Keywords— Seaweed processing, fish balls, sensory evaluation, consumer acceptability.
Abstract— The purpose of this study, was to determine the optimal size for broiler farming and the optimal hen’s raising time to achieve technically and economically profitable farming .The study was conducted in the suburban area of Bobo-Dioulasso where three groups of six broiler farms were identified: the 1st group was made of farms that had 200 to 400 heads, the 2nd group had between 400 to 600 heads, and the 3rd group had more than 1000 heads.. In each group, three farms had completed the hen raising within 35 days and the other three within 42 days. We found that among the chicken coops, 17% respected the building orientation standards and most had low roofs (< 2.5 m) with a short extended eave (< 1 m) and a low dwarf wall (< 20 cm). Almost all of the producers (94.4%) used concomitantly a feed formula and a vaccination schedule. In terms of conduct, crawl space, lighting, preheating and heating were effective on all farms. In fact, 72.2% used coal-fired heaters, 16.7% radiant heater and 11.1% heating bulbs. Upon installation of the chicks (day 1), 76.5% of producers were administering veterinary products. In terms of good density of feeding and watering material, 61% were met at start-up, 43% at growth and 29% at finish. For those who observed the recommended density standards, 88.89% were encountered at start-up, 44% at growth and 5.2% at finish. The highest mortalities and average live weights (AVL) were found on large farms and 42 days raising while the highest Feed conversion ratios (FCR) were recorded in farms with 35 days of driving. The highest chicken production costs were seen in smaller flocks (1831±233) and the larger the flock size at finish, the better the profit (822 ± 151). In conclusion, the category of flock size that allowed the highest benefit for farmers in the suburban area of Bobo-Dioulasso is the group had more than 1000 heads and therefore should be recommended for extension purpose.
Keywords— Bobo-Dioulasso-Burkina Faso, Norms, broiler Chickens, profitability.
Characterization of the Sweet Potato Production System in the Kou Valley in the Western Zone of Burkina Faso
Abstract— In the search for diversification of sources of income, producers have adopted the cultivation of sweet potato in their rotation, especially in irrigated plains. Despite the growing interest of producers for this crop, few results exist on the production systems as practiced by producers with a view to the sustainability of the activity.
The present study aims to characterize the sweet potato production system on the developed perimeter of the Kou valley. To this end, surveys were carried out in the farming community on 30 farms. The results showed that sweet potato is cultivated in rotation with rice in the plain. One hundred percent (100%) of the producers surveyed practice rotation on their agricultural plot. Fertilization is a common practice, growers use NPK and Urea. Labor remains a concern for the crop for more than 80% of producers. Strengthening the technical capacities of producers would be beneficial through appropriate training.
Keywords— Sweet potato, sustainability, system, production, Kou valley, Burkina Faso.