IJOEAR: September 2021

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-7, Issue-9, September 2021

Mass Production of Paecilomyces Lilacinus by using Different Cultivation Media as an Alternative of Incubator

Abstract Mass Production of Paecilomyces Lilacinus by using Different Cultivation Media as an Alternative of Incubator. Paecilomyces lilacinus is a common saprophytic, filamentous fungus. Morphological characters of Paecilomyces lilacinus were separate mycelium, hyaline, conidia white to pink colored and formation of phialides. The growth of Paecilomyces lilacinus carried out on SDA media at room temperature was better than incubator. Various solid substrates like Rice, Wheat bran, and Sorghum were evaluated for the mass multiplication of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus. Added dextrose and antibiotics in solid media for mass multiplication at room temperature. Among all the substrate Wheat bran recorded the maximum spore count of 7. 1 10-8 spore/ml followed by Sorghum 5. 4 10-8 spore/ml and Rice 5. 1 10-8 spore/ml after 20 days. Also dry mycelia weight or biomass of fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus without an incubator was more than using an incubator.

Keywords— Paecilomyces lilacinus, filamentous fungus, phialides, biomass of fungus, incubator.

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Effect of time and proportion of leaf harvest on pest, forage and root yields of sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas L.) in the inland valley swamp and upland ecologies of Njala

Abstract Dearth of knowledge exists regarding the leaf harvest intensity and frequency thresholds that support optimum forage and fresh storage root yields in Sierra Leone. A study was carried out to assess the effects of leaf harvesting time and proportion on Cylas puncticollis infestation, growth and yield of sweet potato in the inland valley swamp and upland ecologies of Njala. Treatment combinations comprised of two varieties (“Kabia” and “Gbanie”), four leaf harvest regimes: 0, 30 60 and 90 days after planting (DAP); and four-leaf harvest intensities (0, 25, 50 and 100%). The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replications. Data collected included Cylas puncticollis severity on vines and storage roots, root dimensions and numbers, fresh foliage and storage root yields. The results revealed that leaf harvesting twice at 25 and 50% contributed more to optimum forage and storage root yields and related attributes of sweet potatoes compared to other treatments. The present study suggests that good agronomic management of sweet potato that supports optimum forage and storage root yields should be selected to meet the dual purpose for which it is grown. These findings serve as good guide for incorporation of leaf harvesting time, proportion of leaf harvest in germplasm assessment and new population development objectives.

Keywords leaf harvest, regimes, intensities, root yield, pest, sweetpotato.

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Review Article: Effect of Biochar on Growth and Yield of Agricultural Produce

Abstract Biochar is a boon for agricultural crops. Biochar is baked biomass that you can add to soil. It is a biomass that is thermally altered in the absence of oxygen, it is baked and not burned and flammable gasses are released (hydrogen, carbon dioxide). Heat transforms plant carbon (found in the cellulose and lignin) into fused aromatic carbon rings that are very stable. Biochar are made from different feedstocks at different physical and chemical properties. In carbon cycle almost all of the carbon returns to the air. Green plants remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere via photosynthesis and convert it into biomass. Virtually all of that carbon is returned to the atmosphere when the plants die and decay, or immediately if the biomass is burned as a renewable substitute for the fossil fuels. While in the biochar cycle up to half of the carbon is sequestered, green plants removed and sequestered as biochar, while the other half is converted to renewable energy co- products before being returned to the atmosphere. Biochar retains soil moisture of the agricultural field. Worms loves biochar, it works best when composted with other organic matter before adding to garden soil. This allows life to colonize the biochar. Biochar composted with animal manure, it is inoculated with compost tea. Biochar composted with food waste and bokashi (anaerobic lactobacillus fermentation). Other activities include minerals, NPK, fungi, worm castings, fish emulsion, urea, etc. biochar can be added to soils to improve fertility. Reduces emissions from the biomass. Improves the water quality and quantity. Helps to improve the agricultural productivity. Valuable resource reduces the forest fires. Value added product for urban and rural agriculture and forest communities.

Keywords— Biochar, Biomass, Green plants, Agricultural, Carbon, Sequestered.

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Degradation of Nevirapine and Trimethoprim from Aqueous Solutions using Selected Microorganisms

Abstract Together with pharmaceutical residues, personal care products encompassing prescription drugs, fragrances, and cosmetics have been detected in groundwater and other aquatic environments, hence compromising the quality of water. Their classification as micropollutants is due to their antibacterial resistance potential, persistence, and ecotoxicity. Biodegradation has been identified as a potential mechanism in their removal. The focus of this study focus was bioaugmentation; (Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) to enhance the degradation of Nevirapine and Trimethoprim in model aqueous solutions. A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) was used to determine the pharmaceuticals. The efficacy of the bacterial strains to degrade selected drugs was evaluated by making the two drugs the sole source of energy and carbon. From the experimental data, the highest percentage biodegradation was recorded; Pseudomonas aeroginosa (86 %) and Staphylococcus aureus (79 %) for TMP and NVP respectively.

Keywords— Biodegradation, efficacy, LC-MS/MS, model solutions, pharmaceutical.

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Analysis of the relationship between the Socio-Economic Characteristics of Rice Farmers and Soil Management Practices in Abuja, Nigeria

Abstract The study examined the analysis of the relationship between the Socio-Economic Characteristics of Rice Farmers and Soil Management Practices in Abuja. The study was conducted in rural communities in Abuja, Nigeria. Two objectives guided the study. The study adopted descriptive and logistic regression research design. Multistage sampling technique was employed to select the farming communities for the study. Twelve (12) agricultural wards (Chuwkuku, Gaube, Bamushin, kotunku, Pai, Dafa, Bako, Dobi, Paso, Chibiri, Gadabiu and Paikon) were randomly selected giving a total of thirty-six (36) agricultural wards. Five blocks were randomly picked from each of the agricultural wards making the total of 180. Lastly two (2) circles were randomly selected from each of the blocks resulting to three hundred and sixty (360) respondents who were randomly selected from the chosen circles. The results show that 58.06% of the respondents were male while 36.13% of the respondents were between the ages of 30 and 39years. Also, 47.74% of them were married with 40% of the respondents having an average of 5 people in their households. 61.94 had at most a national certificate of education (NCE). Majority (44.84) of the respondent had a farm size of between half a hectare and two hectares. The study recommended that manual tillage should be mostly carried out by rice farmer to improve the level of production and also soil rotation should be practiced where soil is much available to reduce the level of degradation.

Keywords— Smallholders, soil management, rice farmers, food security, adoption.

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Testing the ability against Bacillus cereus of actinobacteria strains isolated from sponges in Kien Giang Sea, Vietnam

Abstract This study aimed to test the antibacterial activity of Bacillus cereus of actinobacterial isolates isolated from marine sponges in the Kien Giang Sea, Vietnam. That can select the strains with high resistance to identify them. There were 198 actinobacterial isolates tested. Based on the ability of antimicrobial activity to B. cereus, 82/198 had the against B. cereus, in which there were six isolates with high (7.3%), 52 medium (25.6%), and 21 weak resistance (67.1%). Selection of six isolates with the best resistance to B. cereus (ND1.7a, ND2.7c, HD1-3e, HD1-6a, HD2.3b, and H6b) identified by PCR and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The results identified five strains of Streptomyces (Streptomyces tateyamensis ND1.7a, Streptomyces althioticus HD1.3e, Streptomyces flaveolus HD1.6a, Streptomyces olivaceus HD2.3d, and Streptomyces albidoflavus H6b) and one strain of genus Microbacterium (Microbacterium tumbae ND2.7c).

Keywords— Antimicrobial activity, Bacillus cereus, Kien Giang Sea, sponge, Streptomyces.

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Improving Fruit Quality and Nutritional Value of Deglet Nour dates subjected to Salt Stress by using Phospho-Potassium Fertilization (Biskra south-east of Algeria)

Abstract A field study was carried out during the two consecutive years (2015-2016) in the region of Biskra, southern east of Algeria on date palms of Deglet-Nour variety, grown in a salty environment. To study the combined effect of salinity and phospho-potassium fertilization on the quality and nutritional value of dates, two sites of different salinity, occupied by 54 date palms variety Deglet-Nour has been selected. The palms were fertilized by receiving three doses of potassium (0, 2 and 3 kg / palm) as potassium sulphate K2SO4 (50%) combined with three levels of phosphorus (0, 1 and 2 kg / palm) as superphosphate (TSP 46%). The results revealed that applying 2 kg of potassium/palm in an excessively salty environment and 3 kg/palm in a low or unsalted environment associated to 1 kg of phosphorus in the two different cases of salinity of the two sites S1 and S2 improving the fruit traits.

KeywordsSalinity, dates, date palm, quality of dates, phosphorus, potassium.

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Study of irrigation sources and cultivation area for Cereals & Pulses in the district of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh (India)

Abstract Cereals and pulses play a significant role in the diet of population. As per WHO, the recommended ratio is 2:1 for cereals and & pulses. However, there are different reasons which have gone against the production of pulses in general. Cereals on the other hand, have picked up larger portion in overall cultivation and consequently, the gross & net sown area are more under the cultivation of cereals. Currently, the ratio between cereal to pulses production ranges from 8:1 to 6:1. In this paper, it is found that the ratio between cereals and pulses which was 7.3:1 in the year 2012-13 increased to 7.7 1 in the year 2018-19. The study found that there was not much change in the gross & net area sown in the district of Meerut from the year 2012-13 to 2018-19. Irrigated area was also constant in both the years. Furthermore, production of different cereals and pulses are studied to know whether there is any change in their production due to change in the availability of water for irrigation during studied years in the district of Meerut, Uttar Pradesh.

KeywordsMeerut, Crops, cereals, Pulses, Irrigated area, gross sown area, net sown area, irrigation sources, canals, tube wells.

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Effect of selected fungicides on Brown spot disease of rice caused by Helminthosporium oryzae

Abstract The in-vitro test of selected fungicides against brown spot disease incidence of rice and development of a disease prediction model base on weather variable was conducted during two Kharif seasons from 2014-2015 to 2015-2016. Results revealed that among the selected fungicides treatment lowest per cent disease incidence was found in Propiconazole in both the cropping season (2014-15) and (2015-16) with minimum mean per cent disease index (PDI) value bcd (7.76) and (7.03) with per cent disease control of 72.39 and 73.09 respectively over the control, followed by Propineb (PDI) value bcd (8.6) and (7.23) with per cent disease control of (69.40) and 73.09 respectively of the two cropping seasons. Among the fungicides treatment highest disease incidence was found in Thiophanate with maximum mean per cent disease index (PDI) value bcd (17.03) and (14.98) with per cent disease that control of 39.41 and 42.67 respectively in both the cropping seasons. It was also found disease intensity was higher during the first cropping season (2014-15) as indicated by higher mean per cent disease index (PDI) value abcd (12.5**) whereas in the following cropping season (2015-16) with lower value of (PDI) value abcd (11.18**).

Keywords— Brown spot, Helminthosporium oryzae, disease index, Fungicides, Rice, Fungal Diseases.

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Irrigation Water Quality Assessment for Water Resources used in Irrigation of Agricultural Fields in Mezitli Town of Mersin Province

Abstract This study was conducted for irrigation water quality assessment of water resources used in irrigation of agricultural fields in Mezitli town of Mersin province. Water samples were taken from 20 sampling points of surface water resources used for irrigations in irrigated farming lands of Mezitli town in 4 sampling periods (July – October). Samples were analyzed for pH, EC, water-soluble cations (Ca, Mg, Na, K) and anions (CO3, HCO3, Cl and SO4), boron, %Na, SAR and RSC. Sample pH values varied between 7,05 – 8,26 and EC values varied between 292 – 1103 µmhos/cm. According to US Salinity Lab Classification System, irrigation waters were classified as C2S1 and C3S1 (moderately and highly saline waters). Boron concentrations of all samples were below the threshold value of 0,67 ppm. Significant differences were not observed in water quality parameters throughout the irrigation season.

Keywords Irrigation, irrigation water quality, saline irrigation water, boron.

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Barley Net Blotch Disease Management: A Review

Abstract— Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the ancient grain crops cultivated and used worldwide. In Ethiopia, barley is among important staple crops next to tef, maize, wheat and sorghum mainly grown on about 1 million ha of land with average yield of 2.1t ha. It is the predominant cereal in the high altitudes and it accounts nearly 25% of the total production in Africa.

The fungi Pyrenophora teres f. teres (Ptt) and P. teres f. maculata (Ptm) cause net form net blotch (NFNB) and spot form net blotch (SFNB) of barley, respectively. Net blotch is one of the most important barley diseases which reduce both quality and quantity of barley grain. Yield loss due to this disease reaches up to 100% in susceptible cultivars under severe epidemics. In Ethiopia, barley net blotch is among widely distributed and destructive diseases in cool highland areas and yield losses reaching about 67% have been recorded. Currently, the disease can be controlled using different approaches such as cultural, chemical and biological controls as well as using resistant cultivars of which development and deployment of resistant cultivars is the best management method. However, it is argued that using integrated disease management is one of the most important strategies that should be followed to reduce the effect of barley net blotch diseases. This review discusses recent information on economic importance, epidemiology, life cycle, host range, geographical distribution and disease management of barley net blotch disease. It also presents the barley net blotch disease management methods such as cultural, chemical, biological and use of host resistance methods. Under host resistance method, information on types of resistance, sources of resistance have been presented.

Keywords— Barley net blotch, Disease management, Methods, Cultural, Chemical, Host resistance.

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