Beneficial Effect of Local Resources to Improve Food Crop Production in Tidal Swamp of Indonesia

Abstract Soil found in tidal swamp, Indonesia is dominated by acid sulfate soil. This soil is very acidic resulting in infertile soil for plant growth. This soil is also found in large distribution in South Sumatra, Indonesia with low food crop production. This acidic soil is shown in low content of nutrient and organic matter causing farmers should supply fertilizer in large quantity to support plant growth. Due to increasing price of inorganic fertilizers, farmers are difficulty to purchase the conventional fertilizer. To overcome this problem, it can be introduced some local organic resources such as agricultural wastes to supply nutrient for plant growth or applying for indigenous microorganism to increase nutrient problem. To that respect, this paper will discuss about the organic local resources to improve food crop growth such rice and corn planted in acid sulfate soil. The organic materials analysed used were composted rice straw, cow bone powder, cattle slurry, cow blood powder, ash rice straw and additional anorganic materials used like natural rock phosphate and zeolite. Highest content of N, P and K elements released from organic materials were found in cow blood powder with value of 6.51% N, 1.69% P and 0.125% K respectively followed by cow slurry and humic acid substances of composted rice straw. Furthermore, zeolite contained K, Ca and Mg amounting to 1.28% K, 3.39 % Ca and 0.85% Mg, whereas rock phosphate has Ca content amounting to 20.15% and Mg 2.68%. These materials both organic and anorganic substances were prepared for raw material as a solid organic fertilizer. The composition of solid organic fertilized combined with mineral fertilizers consisted of 45% Humic Acid (HA) + 30% Conventional Fertilizer (CF = 4N:2P:1K) + 25% Natural Material (NM) with a dosage of 750 ton/ha provided the best growth of paddy rice with highest yield of 6.12 ton/ha for Ciherang variety. Meanwhile liquid fertilizer with composition of gliricidia leaves, bamboo shoots, banana weevil, maja fruit, bananas and coconuts water with the rate of 10 l /ha yielding 5.92 ton rice/ha. Moreover, application of 1000 ml POME combined with 10% zeolite produced 5.05 ton/ha corn.

Keywords acid sulfate soil, cow blood and bone powder, organic fertilizer, paddy rice, humic acid.

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