Cluster Analysis of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria from Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii in Unwana River, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Abstract Fish is a major source of protein for humans, and it is patronized by many in the tropics – where fishes can either be cultivated in the farms domestically or caught from open water bodies such as rivers, ponds and streams.  These various sources of fishes and their attendant diversity of microorganisms particularly the bacteria make fishes as potential sources of pathogens. The maintenance of the microbiological quality of food and water is important to prevent waterborne/foodborne diseases in any community, thus the need for this study. A total of 14 samples of water at different points (upstream, midstream and downstream) and 50 samples of live fishes were used for this study. Each of the fish sample was bacteriologically analyzed using the pour-plate and spread plate techniques on culture media plates. And the isolated bacteria were identified using standard microbiological identification techniques. The water samples were subjected to physicochemical analysis to determine the physical and chemical properties of the water. The relatedness of the isolated bacteria was established using cluster analysis/dendogram. The highest bacterial count was obtained from downstream water sample (5.6×10 cfu/ml), indicating a possible pollution of water at this point. Both aerobic heterotrophic Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria were isolated. The Gram positive bacteria isolated include Staphylococcus lugdunensis, S. hominis, S. cohnii, Streptococcus pyogenes, S. pneumoniae, Kocuria varians while the Gram negative bacteria include Raoutella ornithinolytica, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Aeromonas hydrophila, A. veronii, Proteus vulgaris, Serratia fonticola, and Enterobacter gergoriae. Cluster analysis using dendrogram showed some degree of similarity among the different clusters of isolated bacteria. The result of this study presumptively shows that the water sample is polluted; and this in turn affects fresh water fishes in the river. Therefore the microbiological examination of the water at this study site is necessary for monitoring and controlling the quality and safety of the water for usage by the locals.

Keywords Water Microbiology, Water Pollutants, Heterotrophic Bacteria, Cluster Analysis, Nigeria.

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Agriculture Journal: Cluster Analysis of Aerobic Heterotrophic Bacteria from Clarias gariepinus and Tilapia zillii in Unwana River, Ebonyi State, Nigeria

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