Abstract— Plants are often exposed to various environmental stresses such as extreme temperatures, drought, and disease and pest attack. In natural systems, plants face a plethora of antagonists and thus posses a myriad of defense and have evolved multiple defense mechanisms by which they are able to cope with various kinds of biotic and abiotic stresses. In fact plants defense against stresses by different ways. The role of cellular organelles is very important in this way. Cell wall and their derivatives such as oligosaccharins as biochemical defenser or for example trichomes as mechanical defenser is the frontline of the plant defense system. Also Plants have evolved a multi-layered immune system that dynamically responds to pathogens alike cell membrane that is a key mediator of communication between plants and microbes. Cytoplasm and the membrane-bounded structures (organelles) defense against different kind of stresses. The role of cellular organelles in plant defense relate to their enzymes primarily. Enzymes such as proteases, esterases and ribonucleases in cytoplasm, PM H+-ATPases in plasma membrane or β glucosidases included cyanogenic glucosides, saponins, glucosinolates or DIMBOA (2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-1,4-benzoxazin-3-one) glucoside in ER are responsible for plant defense. Also ROSs plus SA and JA in chloroplast and mitochondria play an important role in immune plant system. In nucleus macromolecules including nucleoporins, importins, and Ran-GTP-related components, are essential to mount an efficient immune response in response to different pathogens. And in Golgi apparatus, peroxysomes and vacuoles, glycosyltransferases, myrosinase and hydrolytic enzymes are liable for plant defense respectively.
Keywords— biotic and abiotic stresses; organells; plant defense.
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