Abstract— In this study a steel framed dairy farm structure designed by considering IS 800-2007. It has been observed that by following the code recommendations for the design of dairy farm structures, it becomes expensive, that an ordinary farmer can’t afford it. The basic idea of the investigation is to make these structures more economic for the farmers so that they become affordable. It is proposed to take realistic approach viz-a-viz applicable codes in design of these structures to make them safe and economical. The analysis and design will be done using ETABS software. The factors such as structural capacity and cost involved will be focused in the study.
Keywords— Dairy Farm, Economic Design, Realistic Loads, Quantity Comparison.
Calibration of Crop Coefficients and Evapotranspiration Rates in Semi-Arid and Sub-Humid Agro climates: Impact on Crop Water Requirement
Abstract: Crop water requirement, a key component for Irrigation planning and management depends on Actual Evapotranspiration rates. Variations in Evapotranspiration rates depends on the climatic conditions for a given soil and crop. The objective of this work is to determine the water consumptive use based on crop coefficients for Tomato in Semi-arid and Sub-humid agro climates. The Actual Evapotranspiration was quantified by Lysimeters. Sieve analysis of the soil indicated as sandy soil and has density of 1.859*10-3 Kg/cm3. Depending on density and the root depth of tomato crop, lysimeter of dimensions 52cm depth and 36cm diameter is used to measure actual evapotranspiration rate.
Regression analysis carried out for the actual evapotranspiraton rates, computed using empirical formula indicated that the FAO-56 PM method is well suited for both the regions having correlation coefficients of 0.94 and 0.92 for Semiarid and sub-humid regions respectively. Further, it was found that Thornthwaite equation being the next suited method has a correlation of 0.90 for semiarid and Hargreaves method the next suited method with correlation of about 0.90 for sub-humid. Crop coefficients used in all this potential Evapotranspiration methods were calibrated with lysimeter insitu measurements.
The crop coefficients vary depending on the different crop stages. The recalibrated crop coefficients for tomato crop are 0.78, 1.045, 1.95 and 1.54 for initial, development, mid and late respectively for Semi-arid Agro-climate. Similarly for Sub-Humid agro climate the crop coefficients were found to be 0.9, 0.98, 1.55 and 1.3 respectively.
Keywords: SemiArid and Sub Humid regions, Evapotranspiration rates, caliberated crop coefficients, Tomato crop.
Abstract— Composites are light weighted materials that can replace the metals in strength promisingly in future. The residual porosity of the composites alters the thermo-physical properties of the material to a maximum level. During the impregnation of fibre in matrix (injection), the presence of air voids changes the direction of the flow of resin. This also affects the material properties in terms of flexibility, durability but agitates the effective thermal conductivity (keff).The physics behind the effect of air void on the effective thermal conductivity cannot be captured in commercial software or experiments. The best way to solve this problem is by numerical codes using finite element approach, by dividing the whole macroscopic domain into numerous subdomains as possible. The divided subdomain should be periodic in nature with respect to the whole domain. If the heterogeneities are similar, dual scale approach is used and so on. If the heterogeneities are different and if they are of two types, triple scale approach is used. The contrast ratio and volume percentage of fiber is used as variables. The air void creates a giant leap for saturation in both, which in turn effect the effective thermal conductivity. Air void troubles the effective thermal conductivity mainly because of its insignificance in scalar values of thermal conductivity when it is compared to fiber or matrix mathematically.
Keywords— composites, effective thermal conductivity, homogenization, impregnation, matrix, fibre, preform, contrast ratio, saturation, liquid composite moulding.
Study of the Nickel Complex Formation with Citric Acid in A Mixture Alkyl Polyglycoside10 (APG10) Surfactant/Water System
Abstract— The stability constants of complexes formed by metal cations Ni(II) and citric acid in water and in APG10 surfactant/water medium are determined by the pH titration method combined with using Hyss 2009 simulation software. Under experimental conditions, the Ni(II) complexes with citric acid ligand were determined consisting of [NiCit]–, [NiHCit], [NiCit2]4- and [NiHCit2]3-. The logβ values of the stability constants of the complex species are linearly dependent and decreases with increasing concentration of APG10. The influence of APG10 surfactant on the decrease of stability constants maybe explained by the interation of the surfactant micelles with the complex species. In 0.5% APG10/water solution, the decrease in stability constant value of Ni(II) – Citric complexes compared to these values in the aqueous environment are from 4.367 to 14.126 times.
Keywords— Stability constant, Complex, Citric acid, APG10 non-ionic surfactant.