Abstract— Energy loss reduction is a significant issue for Renewable energy planning in the Distribution system. The high penetration of wind and solar became the primary task for the optimal size of energy storage to support the power mismatch. In the present work, energy savings have been obtained in a renewable integrated distribution system. The impact of the energy storage device has also been evaluated. The main contribution of this paper is:
- Optimal location of DGs and battery are obtained by solving single and multi-objective functions.
- Determination of DG and battery size for loss savings.
- Impact of battery energy storage device on loss profile and total cost of the system.
The simulation results of the test system have been compared with other existing results.
Keywords— Radial distribution system, Battery energy storage device, Energy Loss minimisation, optimal sizing and siting, Renewable Energy sources.
Metal-Containing Nanocomposites on the Basis of Isotactic Polypropylene and Butadiene-Nitrile Rubber
Abstract— One and two-step methods for the synthesis of saccharin-6-carboxylic acid triglyceride were studied. The reesterification reactions of 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-ethersulfoimide of this acid and glycerol with some aliphatic saccharin-6-carboxylic acid esters were carried out. The resulting products are characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. It was found that when using a two-step method, the end product is obtained with the highest yield (85%). The influence of additions of nanofillers (NF) containing nanoparticles of the copper oxide, stabilized by polymer matrix of maleinized polyethylene of high pressure (MPE), obtained by mechano-chemical method on peculiarities of structure and properties of metal-containing nanocomposites on the basis of isotactic polypropylene (PP) and butadiene-nitrile rubber (BNR) by methods of X-ray phase (RPhA) and differential-thermal analyses (DTA) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) has been investigated. It has been revealed an improvement of the strength, deformation and rheological indices and also the thermal-oxidative stability of the obtained nanocomposites, which has been apparently connected with the synergetic effect of the interaction of the zinc-containing nanoparticles with maleic groups of MPE. It has been shown that the nanocomposites on the basis of PP/BNR/HF can be processed both by pressing method and by methods of casting under pressure and extrusion, which expands the sphere of its application.
Keywords— butadiene-nitrile rubber, DTA, isotactic polypropylene, metal-containing nanocomposites, nanoparticles of zinc oxide, RPhA, SEM – analyses, thermal properties.
Generation of Hydrogen Gas from Crude Glycerol by Purple Non-Sulfur Photo Fermentative Bacteria, Rhodobacter Meghalophilus
Abstract— As the world is progressing faster with new technological innovations, the need and demand for energy is also constantly expanding. In the light of conventionally available fossil fuel reserves being exhausted extensively that has left a very deep scar on environment, the urge for alternative environment friendly energy source is the need for energy sustenance. Hydrogen gas is distinct for its high calorific value, clean fuel characteristic and suitability for wide applications. Chemical method likes steam reforming, coal gasification are established technologies available for industrial hydrogen needs but are high in terms of cost and energy input. Biological methods are promising routes for hydrogen gas generation as they can be cost effective and use a variety of organic materials as substrates. The current study is focused on generation of hydrogen gas using Rhodobacter meghalophilus, a mesophilic, and purple non sulfur photo fermentative bacteria. Crude glycerol, byproduct from biodiesel plants is used as carbon substrate because of its rich organic content. Experiments were carried out to study the effect of process parameters viz. volume of crude glycerol, pH and light intensity on generation of hydrogen gas. Crude glycerol in the media was varied from 5 – 15% (v/v), pH between 5.8 – 8.3 and the light intensity at 500, 1000 and 2000 Lx respectively. At 15% (v/v) of crude glycerol, pH of 7.8 and 1000 Lx, the volume of hydrogen gas obtained was 490 ml/L with the substrate to hydrogen gas conversion rate as 0.012 mol/ mol of crude glycerol with light conversion efficiency of 1.16%.
Keywords— Bio hydrogen, Clean energy, Crude glycerol, Photo fermentation, Rhodobacter meghalophilus.