IJOER: October 2020

Engineering Journal: published its volume-6, Issue-10, October 2020 with AD Publications

Synthesis Methods of Saccharin-6-Carboxylic Acid Triglyceride

Abstract One and two-step methods for the synthesis of saccharin-6-carboxylic acid triglyceride were studied. The reesterification reactions of 2-hydroxypropyl-1,3-bis-ethersulfoimide of this acid and glycerol with some aliphatic saccharin-6-carboxylic acid esters were carried out. The resulting products are characterized by elemental analysis and IR spectroscopy and size exclusion chromatography. It was found that when using a two-step method, the end product is obtained with the highest yield (85%).

Keywords alkyl esters, glycerine, IR-spectra, monomer, reesterification, saccharin-6-carboxylic acid.

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The Test of Permeable by Expansion Valve in Cooling Compressor

Abstract Current article describes the HFC test, which the measure the amount of impurity in cooling compressors, which they could cause damage to them. In introduce of the article describes the process of cooling cycle in cooling equipment. In the tab. 1 are summarized the basic advantages and disadvantages of use natural based refrigerant, which are used in producing the compressors designated for equipment’s as refrigerators, air conditions, cooling rooms. In the article are describe the media, which it may occur in compressor, but their presence can may cause the problems with the operation of compressor possibly its damage. We say about media respectively the products, which they are not miscible with oil. It is water, paraffin, silicone and alkali products. Test HFC discovers and measurements the presence these components and on the basis of their quantity decides on the quality of production of refrigeration compressors. The article describes the test procedure and in the end the evaluation of the maximum value of the given incompatible respectively unwanted products.

Keywords compressor, HFC test, refrigerant, refrigeration equipment.

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Comparing Oxygen Plasma, Hydrogen Peroxide and Flame Treatments of Polyamide Tubes to Hydrophilic Coating Adhesion

Abstract Hydrophilic-coated catheters reduce the endovascular friction between the device and blood and increase the biocompatibility of catheters. This study investigated three surface treatments to improve catheter surface. Oxygen plasma, hydrogen peroxide, and flame exposure coating equipment were manufactured. Polyamide 11 (PA11) catheter surfaces were treated and the influence of exposure time for each individual technique was studied. Treated samples were characterized by goniometry, scanning electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy and scratch resistance of the hydrophilic coating deposited. Oxygen plasma, hydrogen peroxide, and flame surface treatments may considerably increase the wettability and adhesion properties of polyamide 11. The flame treatment during 60 s showed significant improvement in surface properties, in which both wettability and the adhesion of the hydrophilic coating were superior in comparison to the other samples. The devices developed in these work were able to coat and improve catheter surface properties.

Keywords— Oxygen Plasma, Hydrogen Peroxide, Flame Treatments, Polyamide Tubes, Hydrophilic Coating.

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Thermal Insulation of Distribution Pipelines

Abstract In heat distribution systems, which are used to supply a heat-conveying medium to consumers, a certain amount of heat is always released to the surrounding environment. Such inevitable and undesired release of heat is referred to as heat loss. Heat loss causes that the medium flowing inside the distribution system cools down and its subsequent heating up is therefore more demanding. The consequences include higher costs of heat and hot water production not only for system operators but also for end consumers. Therefore, attention should be paid to thermal insulation when incorporated in heat distribution systems, primarily to its quality and thickness.

Keywords heat network, efficiency, heat loss, ambient temperature.

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Dietary Assessment & Evaluation of Nutritional using Image Segmentation for Mobiles: Survey

Abstract There is a great demand for easily accessible user friendly dietary self assessment and self management applications. This is because of growing concern about chronic diseases and other health problems related to cancer and obesity. So accurate diet measurement is very important. Measurement of accurate dietary and development of fully automatic estimation of nutritional intake is considered to be an open research problem. In this paper a survey on mobile telephone food record has been done. This mobile telephone food record provides an accurate account of daily food and nutrient intake of an individual. The identification and quality estimation is based on obtaining images before and after consumption of meal. Image analysis is done which includes the segmentation of food items, identification of food items by its features, automatic estimation of food portion.

Keywords— dietary assessment, diet record method, image analysis, nutrient computation, volume estimation.

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Recovery of Heavy Oil from Unconventional Source (Oil Sands) with Design Steam Injection System

Abstract The use of steam ranging from 100oC to 280oC in extracting and producing oil from unconventional reservoir (oil sand) was investigated. Core samples were obtained from Edo state in Nigeria. An oil sand laboratory reservoir model was used to investigate technical feasibility of the injection of steam as an enhanced oil recovery agent for tight hydrocarbon reservoirs and the effect of temperature on the petrophysical properties such as porosity and permeability of oil sand reservoir. Steam was injected into the oil sand reservoir to recover bitumen at different temperatures ranging from 100oC to 280oC. Results showed that as the temperature of the steam increased, more hydrocarbon (bitumen) was recovered due to the reduction of its viscosity and oil-water interfacial tension. The core experiment indicates that the porosity and permeability of a tight formation such as that of oil sand at ambient temperature is 0.038 and 0.007MD respectively. An increase in reservoir temperature by the injection of steam altered the petrophysical properties (porosity and permeability) of the reservoir. Samples collected and analyzed after recovery showed a decrease in porosity and an increase in the permeability of the formation. Results indicate that the viscosity of bitumen decreased with an increasing temperature. Maximum recovery of bitumen was obtained at 280oC. The injection of steam at temperature of 300oC and above, would produce more bitumen at industrial scale and could be refined and upgraded to liquid fuels to supplement the drastic reduction of the conventional oil. The results obtained from this work showed good agreement with data from existing data.

Keywords— Bitumen, Heavy oil, Oil sands, Permeability, Porosity, Steam, tight formation, Unconventional, viscosity.

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Vehicle Re-Identification Based on the Authenticity of Orthographic Projection

Abstract Vehicle re-identification is still a problem do not receive much attention in the multimedia and vision communities. Since most existing approaches mainly focus on the overall vehicle appearance for re-identification and do not consider the visual appearance changes of sides of vehicle, called local deformation. In this paper, we propose a vehicle re-identification method based on the authenticity of orthographic projection, in which three sides of vehicle are extracted, and the local deformation is explicitly minimized by scaling each pair of corresponding side to uniform size before computing similarity. To compute the similarity between two vehicle images, we 1) construct 3D bounding boxes around the vehicles, 2) extract sub-images of the three sides of each vehicle like a three-view drawing, 3) compute the similarity between each pair of corresponding side sub-images, and 4) use their weighted mean as the final measure of similarity. After computing the similarity between the query vehicle and all candidate vehicles, we rank these similarities and take the vehicle with the maximum similarity as the best match. To evaluate this approach, we use a dataset with 240 pairs of vehicle images extracted from surveillance videos shot at seven locations in different directions. The experimental results show that our proposed method can achieve 75.83% matching accuracy for the top-1 ranked vehicle and 91.25% accuracy for the top-5 vehicles.

Keywords 3D bounding boxes, local deformation, vehicle re-identification, weighted mean.

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