Abstract— Composites are light weighted materials that can replace the metals in strength promisingly in future. The residual porosity of the composites alters the thermo-physical properties of the material to a maximum level. During the impregnation of fibre in matrix (injection), the presence of air voids changes the direction of the flow of resin. This also affects the material properties in terms of flexibility, durability but agitates the effective thermal conductivity (keff).The physics behind the effect of air void on the effective thermal conductivity cannot be captured in commercial software or experiments. The best way to solve this problem is by numerical codes using finite element approach, by dividing the whole macroscopic domain into numerous subdomains as possible. The divided subdomain should be periodic in nature with respect to the whole domain. If the heterogeneities are similar, dual scale approach is used and so on. If the heterogeneities are different and if they are of two types, triple scale approach is used. The contrast ratio and volume percentage of fiber is used as variables. The air void creates a giant leap for saturation in both, which in turn effect the effective thermal conductivity. Air void troubles the effective thermal conductivity mainly because of its insignificance in scalar values of thermal conductivity when it is compared to fiber or matrix mathematically.
Keywords— composites, effective thermal conductivity, homogenization, impregnation, matrix, fibre, preform, contrast ratio, saturation, liquid composite moulding.
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