Levels of Nitrogen Dioxide and Sulphur Dioxide Measured Around Roadside Gardens in Port Harcourt Metropolis
Abstract— Levels of nitrogen dioxide and sulphur dioxide around roadside gardens in Port Harcourt metropolis were determined at 0m and 50m from road junctions using portable hand held Multi RAE PLUS (PGM-50), a programmable multi gas monitor with an electrochemical sensor for the detection of Sulphur dioxide and ITX Multi Gas monitor for the detection of Nitrogen dioxide. The results showed that the concentrations of NO2 and SO2 ranged from 0 – 0.3ppm in both seasons. The mean concentration of SO2 at 0m and high traffic density stations were higher than the mean concentration at 50m and low traffic density stations. The difference in mean concentrations between dry and rainy seasons, traffic density and distance were not significant for NO2 but significant for SO2. The concentration of NO2 and SO2 recorded at the study stations exceeded the permissible limits of 0.004ppm and 0.01ppm respectively, recommended by the Federal Ministry of Environment and therefore poses serious threat to the environment particularly small farms and gardens around major roads. The levels of NO2 and SO2 around the gardens were influenced by traffic density, seasonal variations and distances from major roads, therefore authorities should embark on sensitization and enlightenment campaigns; farming activities and raw consumption of exposed vegetables, crops and fruits should be discouraged in the study areas.
Keywords— Nitrogen dioxide, Sulphur dioxide, garden, roadside, traffic density, plants.
Abstract— Different drying methods viz., Sun drying, shade drying and tray drying (temperature 45, 55 and 65 0C) were used for dehydration of curry (Murraya koenigii) leaves for optimal retention of color and its constituents. It was observed that the time required for tray drying was less (27%), when compared to sun and shade drying. Tray dried (550C) curry leaves had maintained nutritional constituents up to acceptable limit with superior green color and a more porous and uniform structure than those obtained from sun and shade drying. Dehydrated curry leaves showed good consumer acceptance as well as shelf life.
Keywords— Drying, Curry leaves, Minerals, Vitamin, Dryer.
Sorghum is an important feed to human and animal used in countries like the United State, India, Mexico, South America, Nigeria and Australia. Good-quality sorghum is available with a nutritional feeding value that is equivalent to that of corn. Sorghum can be processed to further improve and increase its feed value and techniques such as grinding, steam flaking, crushing popping, steaming and extruding have all been used to enhance the grain for feeding. The products are then fed to beef, dairy cattle, swine, laying hens, poultry, sheep, and are used in pet foods. As much as 12 percent of domestic sorghum production also goes to produce ethanol and its various products. With the demand for renewable energy fuel sources increasing, demand for products like sorghum-DDGS (sorghum distiller’s dried grains with soluble) will increase as well due to sorghum’s favourable nutrition profile.Sorghum is about 70% starch, so is a good energy source.
Dynamics of Phalaris minor in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under different establishment methods and weed control measures
Abstract— A field experiment was conducted during rabi season of 2013-2014 at crop research centre Pantnagar (Uttarakhand) to examine the behaviour and magnitude of Phalaris minor and its dynamics in different combinations of establishment methods and weed control measures in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Density of Phalaris minor was highest under RTW as compared to CTW and ZTW at 60, 90 DAS and also at maturity stage. Ready mix of clodinafop-propargyl + MSM @ 64 g/ha and clodinafop-propargyl @ 60 g/ha completely controlled Phalaris minor. Dry matter accumulation by Phalaris minor was highest under RTW which was at par with CTW but significantly higher over ZTW at 30, 90 DAS and at maturity.
Keywords— zero tillage, conventional tillage, roto till seed drill, wheat, Phalaris minor
Abstract— This research was carried out in order to utilize mud cake from sugar factory and cattle feces waste to make compost. Composting process was accelerated by addition of isolate called Trichoderma viride APT01. The study was conducted according to a completely randomized design with three replications with mud cake and cattle feces ratio: 100/0, 75/25, 50/50, 25/75, and 0/100. Each mixture of organic matter was added with isolate of Trichoderma viride APT01. Quantitative data was analyzed using variance analysis with alpha 0:05. Among those compositions, it was shown that the value of C / N ratio between 14.6 to 18.3 with the level of acidity, pH 6.62 to 7.36 was the best product. Compost produced for composition of mud cake and cattle feces 25/75 has a value of C/N = 14.6 and pH = 6.78. This result was in accordance with The Bureau of Indian Standards.
Keywords— Mud Cake, Compost, Trichoderma Viride, C/N Ratio.