IMJH: March 2021

Medical Journal: March 2021

A Review of Smoking on Cardiovascular Disease: Impact on Human Health

Abstract— Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the leading cause of global morbidity and mortality. They also inflict huge direct and indirect financial costs on the worldwide society. With the ready availability of affordable therapeutics globally, and the relatively slow development of newer therapeutics, lifestyle behaviors are gaining importance, both as preventive and therapeutic interventions. Smoking tobacco is consistently and strongly related with a higher risk of CVD incidence, adverse progression, and increased mortality. Smoking is deleteriously associated with most cardiovascular diseases. Smokers die of more CVDs than from any other cause. Cessation of smoking is therefore paramount in improving worldwide CVD health. This paper reviews the negative effects of smoking on cardiovascular diseases.

Keywords— Smoking, Cardiovascular Diseases, Lifestyles, Modifiable Risk Factors, Nicotine.

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HLA Ligand Binding in Cytokine Storm Stage with Convalescent Plasma Therapy: A Cytotoxic Activity Switching-off

Abstract— The potential of Convalescent Plasma Therapy (CPT) as the last effort for immunocompromised COVID-19 patients are not controversial anymore, but the mechanism which supports the anti-ligand-binding and memory cell should be broadly known. While p53 mutation associated CD4 has not been ready, memory cells could not know the lymphocyte induced up-regulation in cytokine storm stage, made lymphopenia. Keyword setting of lymphopenia mechanism-COVID-19, searching in Science Direct and other search engines, is used in this Systematic Review PRISMA design.

Immunocompromised patients including obese and old age is included, also Lymphocytopenia – ARDS, Diabetes Type 1. Cardiac arrest, cardiac arrhythmia, hypertension alone was excluded. References (15) that supported lymphocytopenia mechanism-COVID-19 are selected. About 15 million and 4,593 participants of COVID-19 patients with only 1½ Systematic Review due to the mechanism of lymphocytopenia and off reaction with CPT are recorded.

Lymphocytopenia cause by cytokine storm in week-2 COVID-19, while in low CD4 (Th) in this cytokine storm COVID-19, could be stronger and faster in week-1st in the second infection on person with diabetes. CPT serum, is the only way to switch-off cytotoxic activity, and increase the lymphocyte again.


CPT switch-off cytotoxic activity on Human Leucocyte Antigen (HLA) binding ligand in immunocompromised patients.

Keywords— Cytotoxic activity; HLA ligand binding; Lymphocytopenia; Lymphopenia; COVID-19; critical ARDS.

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