Arch Dimensions Changes of Egyptian Orthodontic Patients using Different Orthodontic Archwires: A Prospective Clinical Study
Objective: The aim of the present study was to make an evaluation of inter-canine width before and after the stage of levelling and alignment in the mandible using three different orthodontic arch wires.
Subjects and methods: Thirty orthodontic patients both males and females were selected and treated by the same researcher. The patients were randomly divided equally into three groups according to the type of wire that was used, so Group A, B and C will be used. Group A, this group included 10 patients treated with (CNA) wire. Group B, this group included 10 patients treated with (Cu NITI) wire. Group C, this group included 10 patients treated with (NITI) wire.
Results: The results showed that inter-canine width showed no significance after the finishing of the leveling and alignment stage.
Keywords: arch, wires, inter-canine, width, orthodontic.
Social Stigma and other Consequences of COVID-19 Pandemic in Low Resource Setting, in Eastern Africa: Need to Increase Preventive Efforts and Addressing the Consequences, 2020
Abstract— Since the emergency of COVID-19 pandemics, many countries have been encountered a multitude of challenges. People have been facing health related and other social consequences throughout the world. It is too early to know the aggravated impact of COVID-19 on people living in resource-limited setting, like east Africa countries. In these countries, besides direct public health impact, the COVID-19 pandemic has provoked social stigma and discriminatory behaviors against people of certain ethnic backgrounds as well as anyone perceived to have been in contact with the virus. Social stigma can negatively affect those with the disease, as well as their caregivers, family, friends and communities.COVID-19 pandemics have also been provoked great impacts on daily social consumptions such as food and other food supplements. In addition, COVID-19 pandemic were overshadowed endemics diseases such as malaria, TB and HIV related care and antenatal care services as well as other non-communicable diseases prevention and control. Social stigma coupled with other consequences could result in more severe health problems, can undermine social cohesion and prompt possible social isolation of groups, which might contribute to a situation where the virus is more, not less, likely to spread and difficulties controlling a disease outbreak. Therefore, how we communicate about COVID-19 is critical in supporting people to take effective action to help combat the disease and to avoid fuelling fear and stigma. An environment needs to be created in which the disease and its impact can be discussed and addressed openly, honestly and effectively. This is a message for government, media and local organizations working on the COVID-19 infections.
Keywords— COVID-19, Social consequence, Resource – limited setting, Africa.
Abstract—Diabetic is a well known public health problem of today. There are many risk factors of it, which can be identified in pre-diabetic state. So the present study was conducted with the aim to know the status of anthropometric and haematological parameters in pre-diabetic states. For this hospital based study pre-diabetic subjects were identified from first degree relatives of type 2 DM Patients, enrolled in diabetic research centre P.B.M. hospital Bikaner. Relevant investigations were done. Data thus collected on semi-structured questionnaire and analysed using content analysis. Data analysis revealed that although mean Body Mass Index (BMI) was within normal range but Waist circumference (WC), West Hip (W/H) Ratio, Systolic blood pressure were higher than the normal range accepted for that parameter. But mean value of all the studied haematological parameter were within the normal range accepted for that parameter. So it can be conclude that anthropology of an individual may be associated with the pre-diabetic state. Hypertension was found in 25.35% of pre-diabetics. Further researches are necessary to find out this possible association of anthropologic parameter and pre-diabetic state.
Keywords: Pre-diabetes, Anthropometric Parameters, Haematological Parameters, Hypertension.