Monitoring the Impact of Surface Water Flooding on Groundwater Quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda

Abstract Rwanda exhibits a climate characterized by two rainy seasons in which erosions and inundations are likely to occur and cause the flooding of rivers which threaten the quality of waters. Most of rivers are connected hydrologically with groundwater aquifers which allow the recharge. This study aimed to monitor the impact of surface water flooding on groundwater quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda. Two parameters namely turbidity and color which are directly influenced by flooding of water bodies were monitored between January 2017 and June 2020. Laboratory analyses for turbidity on an hourly and color on a monthly basis were conducted at Nzove Water Treatment Plant Laboratory and the computed monthly average values were used. The laboratory results for surface water and groundwater were compared through graphical presentation which indicated that there is a relationship between the change in quality of both waters due to the fact that the trends in variation of the quality of both waters correlate in the same periods or groundwater quality changes similarly just a little bit after surface water quality has changed. This observation has led to the conclusion that the changes in water quality of Nyabarongo River which is mainly exacerbated by the flooding of March to May and October to December rainy seasons affect the quality changes of the groundwater recharged by this river. This finding indicates the need and urgency of implementation of Nyabarongo catchment rehabilitation and management plans.

Keywords Floods, groundwater recharge, impact, Nyabarongo River, water quality change.

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Agriculture Journal: Monitoring the Impact of Surface Water Flooding on Groundwater Quality around Nyabarongo River in Rwanda

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