Phytoremediation of Cadmium-contaminated agricultural land using indigenous plants

Abstract The content of the heavy metal cadmium (Cd) which is excessive in the soil could affects on the soil and plants health. The aim of this descriptive study was to investigate the ability of selected indigenous plants in stabilizing Cd. The study was conducted at an agricultural production center in Batu City, East Java, Indonesia. There were two stages of this study, namely: (1) analysis of nutrient and heavy metal contamination, and (2) phytoremediation experiment by using five types of indigenous plants. The experiment was arranged in completely randomized design (CRD) with three replications. Once the plants were harvested, the plant materials then were analyzed the heavy metal content remaining in the soil and absorbed by the plants. The heavy metal content analysis used AAS (Atomic Absorption Spectrometry). Subsequently, the analysis result data were calculated for the bio-concentration factor (BCF) and heavy metal reduction. The initial content of heavy metal Cd in the soil prior phytoremediation had passed the threshold value (2.26 mg kg-1). The five indigenous plants tested on the contaminated soil showed a good growth pattern, especially in the fourth week after planting. The average ability of this selected plant to reduce heavy metals Cd was up to 71.2%. The reductions of heavy metals Cd obtained by each plant were Vetiveria zizanioides (71.2%), Eleusine indica, L. (58.9%), Ageratum conyzoides L. (52.2%), Euphorbia hirta (51.8%) and Chromolaena odorata (22.1%).

Keywords Phytoremediation, contaminated land, heave metal Cd, indigenous plants

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