Abstract— Investigation on leaf spot (Phoma tropica) first time report from Indian bean (Lablab purpureus L.) under south Gujarat condition. Investigation was carried out in the Department of Plant Pathology, Navsari Agricultural University, Navsari to find out suitable pH regimes for physiological requirement of the pathogen. The fungus could grow at all the levels of pH tested, but growth and micro-sclerotial production were significantly better in acid medium as compared to alkaline, pH 6.0 appeared to be the optimum.
Keywords— Lablab purpureus, Phoma tropica, pH.
Soil Fertility Status of Some Villages in Chilika Block of North Eastern Ghat Agroclimatic Zone of Odisha
Abstract— The work on the status of soil fertility in Chilika Block of Khurda district in Odisha has not been done extensively. Total 30 surface (0-15cm) soil samples were collected from three villages namely Vellery, Badakul and Chasangara of Chilika Block of Khurda district. The organic carbon content of all the three villages varies from low to very high with a mean value varying from 0.49% to 0.75% and is good enough for crop production and in Vellery village it is found to be highest due to presence of black soil. The available N content of all the three villages are found to be low and is found to be in positive co-relation with the organic carbon content of the lands. The available N content is higher in all the land types of Chasangara village in comparison to similar land types of other two villages. The available P content of all soil in all the three villages is moderate. However the P content of Vellery village is higher than other two villages because of the higher content of organic matter. The available K contents of all the soils of all the three villages are high and especially in Vellery village it is highest. This is a good indication for the high yield of various fruits, vegetables and tuber crops which need a high amount of K. The S content is found to be comparatively higher in the low land soils of all the three villages under study. Again the relatively higher content of S in all the three types of land i.e. upland, medium land and low land of Vellery village in comparison to other two villages has a good co-relation with the other parameters under study. The various results obtained from the different soil tests give information about the nutrients status of the soil of the three villages under study and on the basis of these findings, a balanced recommendation of fertilizers and manures to various crops can be made that will help in increasing the productivity of different food crops for the economical development of the farmers of that area.
Keywords— soil fertility, Chilika, Soil texture, organic carbon.
Effect of Various Forms of Urea and GA3 on Floral Characters of Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat)
Abstract— The experiment on effect of various forms of urea and GA3 on floral characters of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) was carried out at Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Annamalai University, Tamil Nadu. Forty five days old rooted cutting of the variety “White” grown on a media containing a mixture of one part of sand, one part of red earth and one part of farm yard manure were subjected to four forms of urea (liquid feeding, tarcoated urea, neemcake coated urea and prilled urea) and four levels of GA3 (water spray, 50 ppm, 75 ppm and 100 ppm). The highest number of flowers per plant (102), maximum spray length (18.40 cm) and flower diameter (5.27 cm) was obtained from the plants supplied with neemcake coated urea and sprayed with 100 ppm of GA3 at 60,90 and 120 days after planting.
Keywords— Chrysanthemum, neemcake coated urea, GA3, Floral characters.
Abstract— The mango (Mangifera indica L.) makes up a significant horticultural blessing of India. No other fruit has such a conspicuous register in written works, verses, mythical tradition, chronicles, painting and statuesque as that of mango. The colloquial name of mango is ‘aam’ which implies ‘the common’. It is not only typical throughout India; but is also the fruit of the ordinary folk people. Attributable to its nutritive advantage mango has pandemic solicitation and promptly called the ‘king of fruit’. Moreover, ripe fruit is revitalizing, energizing, fattening, diuretic and laxative. Each and every portion is promising, rewarding and propitious and has been employed in folk remedies in some procedure or another. Besides gobbled as dessert as well as green, mango can be cured by processing into different products in domicile and folk industry. Like Ayurveda, folk medicine also gives equal importance to preventives as well as curative measures but folk prescriptions are covered in the name of rituals and rites and some other cultural behaviour. Gangetic West Bengal is rich in mango-lore and the folk people have valuable wisdom relating to mango and they undertake their own experimentation in their own ways either in the orchards (for ITKs), or in the kitchens (for folk foods) or in the dispensaries (for folk medicines) and in the mind-land (for folk literature). Therefore, it was worthwhile to conduct a survey in the perspective of mango-lore of the Gangetic West Bengal for collecting and documenting the riches of folklore by participatory rural folk appraisal. The present study is based on intensive surveys carried out over a period of 4 years starting from the year 2007 with a detailed account of the folk diversities, folk knowledge and cultural tradition pertaining to mango cultivation and industry in Bengal. Mango-lore, the aggregate of cultural tradition delineating mango, is originated from the beliefs, culture and customs of folk people and it covers the tradition based cultural expressions exemplified by non-material folklore (viz. riddles, proverbs, sayings, folk tales, folk songs etc.) and material folklore (viz. folk foods, folk medicines, folk implements, folk varieties etc.). In the folk songs and dramas of Bengal, the diversities in mango are mentioned. Less than 5 per cent mango area of Bengal is under the cultivation of these diversities. Though it is now a common practice that orchardist-folk sells their orchards to the merchant-folk for a specific period of time, the so called folk germplasm are kept for their own consumption. Though the industrial-orchardist, now-a-days, have least interest in those folk varieties and more frequently than not they avail the opportunity of felling those, the ambitious scientists and institutions are now looking forward to have right to hold the genetic resources of the folk germplasm of mango. But as folk wisdom as well as folk variety of mango is the wealth of a folk, any individual does not claim the credit and these are closely related to culture and heritage of folk people in confined locations. Social scientists should be alert regarding this folk-intellection in plant improvement of mango.
Keywords— Folk food, Folk knowledge, Folk literature, Folklore, Folk medicine, Folk-variety, Mango-lore, Participatory Research.
Production Economics of Mat-Sedges (Cyperus Tegetum Roxb.) Cultivation as Influnced by Water Management Practices for Economic Stability of Resource-Poor Rural People of West Bengal, India
Abstract— Mat-sedges are cultivated mostly by the resource-poor farmers in parts of West Bengal. Cultivation of mat-sedges provides a gainful employment to the rural economy, supplements the low income of the farmers and supports their livelihood. From the literature, preliminary survey and contact with the farmers at Sabong and Pingla of Paschim Medinipore district, where it is being widely cultivated mostly as mono-crop with poor management practices by the poor and marginal farmers, which resulted poor returns (Jana and Puste, 2012). Mandal (1986) reported that application of irrigation water according to physiological growth stages of the crop, particularly during the drier months for their growth and productivity. So, on the basis of this fact, a field experiment was conducted during 2006 (May) to 2008 (May) at farmer’s field at Bural under Sabong block of Paschim Medinipore district, West Bengal on clay loam soil. In this experiment annually 3 cuttings were taken, viz. at the end of kharif, winter and summer season, respectively. Regarding production economics, highest BCR value of 1.89 and 2.93 were obtained from the treatment W6 [W3 (Rainfed during kharif + 2 irrigations during winter + 3 irrigations during summer) + rice straw mulching during winter and summer season, respectively] during 1st and 2nd year, respectively. Conversely, the lowest BCR value of 1.11 and 1.97 were obtained with the treatment W2 (Rainfed during kharif + one life-saving irrigation during winter and summer, respectively) during 1st and 2nd year, respectively.
Keywords— Mat-sedges cultivation, Production economics, Water management practices, Benefit-cost ratio (BCR), Economic stability and Employment opportunity of rural people.
Abstract— Monthly data of length composition for Tylochromis jentinki (Steindachner, 1895), landed between February 2004 and January 2006 in Ebrié Lagoon (Ivory Coast) were used to estimate the growth, mortality and exploitation parameters of the stock. A total of 1850 individuals ranging from 7.5 to 23.5 cm SL (standard length), were examined. Length frequency data were analyzed with FiSAT software using the ELEFAN 1 package to estimate the population parameters. We estimated von Bertalanffy growth parameters: L∞ = 25.00 cm, K = 0.67 year-1, and t0 = -0.28 year-1, with the growth performance index, φ’ of 2.62. The length-weight relationship was W = 0.0215 x SL2.98 and described isometric growth for the species with an asymptotic weight (W∞) = 314.99 g. Total mortality (Z) estimated from catch-curve analyses was = 2.38 year-1. Natural mortality based on growth parameters and mean environmental temperature (T = 28ºC) was M = 1.45 year-1. Furthermore, the fishing mortality rate of 0.93 year-1 was by far in excess of the precautionary target (Fopt = 0.73 year-1) and slightly under the limit (Flimit = 0.97 year-1) biological reference points. With this level of mortality and exploitation level (E = 0.39 < 0.50), the stock was under-exploited.
Keywords— Age, growth, Cichlidae, exploitation, recruitment, length frequency.