IJOEAR : October 2015

Agriculture Journal,Environmental Journal,International Journal

Effect of different initial soil moisture on desi chickpea ICCV 95107 (Cicer arietinum L.) dry matter production and crop growth rate

Abstract This study aimed to assess some priming methods and durations under ranging field capacities of water in Kirinyaga County in Kenya in 2012/2013 growing seasons. A two season field experiment was conducted at Mwea Irrigation Agricultural Development Centre (MIAD) farm to evaluate chickpea advanced lines of ICCV 97105 for growth and growth rates under no priming, hydro priming and halo prime at three levels of i.e. 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % NaCl2 concentration with three priming durations (8, 10 and 12 hours) and varying initial soil moisture levels 100% field capacity (FC), 75 % FC, 50 % FC and 25 % FC). The experiment was laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Pre sowing irrigation, combined priming method and priming duration allocated in the main, and sub-plots, respectively. The control treatment was the pre-sowing irrigation at field capacity (FC). The results revealed the maximum/optimum crop growth rate (CGR) of desi chickpea was achieved with 100% FC during wet season I (October, 2012-January, 2013) which was 181.0kg DM/ha/day, while it was 114 kg DM/ha/day with 90-96% FC during the drier season II (July -Oct 2013). Desi chickpea grows slowly under low seasonal rainfall (311.2 mm) than higher seasonal rainfall (565.1 mm). Therefore, it is necessary to apply higher pre sowing irrigation of up to 100% FC in dry areas. Relating crop growth rate CGR during 75-90 days after sowing (DAS) phase period with DM and CGR to grain yield at harvest 120 DAS revealed that it is possible to predict DM and grain yield with 80.5 and 77.5% confidence by use of linear production functions:

Key words: Chickpea, Priming, Pre sowing irrigation, growth and growth rate

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Organogenic Regeneration of an Elite Cultivar of Chinese Jujube (Zizyphus jujuba Mill)

Abstract An efficient and relatively simple regeneration system was developed for an elite cultivar of Chinese Jujube, a perennial tree, by culturing young twig segments as explants from 8-15 year old trees. The twig segments were disinfected by submerging them in 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for 15 min with 3 min vacuum. Calli developed from both ends of the twig segments on half-strength MS medium supplemented with sucrose and BA or BA and NAA in combination. The frequency of shoot formation from calli was higher than 80% when the explants were placed on the half – strength MS medium supplemented with BA (2.581 μM) and NAA (2.685 μM). Roots were produced from adventitious buds for 90% of the regenerated shoots when they were placed on the MS medium supplemented with 4.920 μM IBA and 5.708 μM IAA. After transplanting to soil, 82% of the regenerated seedlings survived when they were covered with glass containers to maintain humidity. The results suggest that Chinese jujube can be reproduced and multiplied using organogenesis with the appropriate explant and culture medium.

Keywords explants, regeneration, vacuum.

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A Major Irrigation Project (Accelerated Mahaweli Programme) and the Chronic Kidney Disease of Multifactorial Origin in Sri Lanka

Abstract The Mahaweli River is the longest river in Sri Lanka. In 1978, the government of Sri Lanka launched the Accelerated Mahaweli Development Programme, under the purview of Mahaweli Authority of Sri Lanka, the largest irrigation program in the country. It is a multi-purpose development scheme designed for the generation of hydroelectricity, irrigation, and water for domestic consumption. Since the mid-1990s, a major, non-infectious epidemic of chronic kidney disease of multifactorial origin (CKDmfo) has been reported in Sri Lanka for which no cause has been identified. This disease predominantly affects dry zonal, agricultural regions, particularly the North Central Province (NCP). During the past two decades, thousands of people have died due to this disease. This article assesses whether there is a relationship between this environmental impact from this major irrigation project and the deadly disease of CKDmfo. Water in the Mahaweli River is known to be polluted with various compounds, including phosphates coming from the excessive use of fertiliser in the hill country. However, the levels of phosphate in the Mahaweli River and in the NCP reservoirs are less than 0.15 mg/L. Such levels can cause ecological harm but are not a threat to human health nor causes renal failure. In addition, there are large regions outside the Mahaweli-fed localities where people are affected with CKDmfo. Thus, it is unlikely that water from the Mahaweli River itself is directly related to the occurrence of CKDmfo, but its harmful environmental impact is noticeable. Nevertheless, excess phosphates can cause algae blooms and cyanobacterial growth in water bodies, which harm aquatic lives and the ecology. Thus, governments and society must take responsibility and initiate actions to minimise environmental harm, protect and preserve the watersheds, curb the overuse of agrochemicals, and preserve water quality and the environment for current and future generations.

Running header: “River Mahaweli and CKDmfo”

Keywords Agribusiness, Agrochemicals, CKDu, Dry zone, Environment, Fertiliser, Pollution, Phosphate, Premature deaths.

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Effect of Yam-Based Production on Food Security Status of Farm Households in Edo South, Nigeria

Abstract The study assessed the effect of yam-based production on the food security status of farm households in Edo south, Nigeria. Specifically, the objectives of the study were to examine the socio-economic characteristics of the respondents, analyse the contribution of yam-based production to the income profile of the households, estimate their mean per capita daily calorie intake and examine the determinants and the probability of households being food secured.

A multi-stage sampling technique was adopted in selecting 120 farm households from Edo South agro-ecological zone of Edo-State data were collected with the aid of well – structured interview schedule on households socio-economic variables which included sex, age, marital status, level of education, farm size, household size and household income and expenditure profile among others. Data collected were analyzed by appropriate statistical analysis which included frequency counts, percentages, mean, standard deviation, and Logit regression model.

The results showed that 97 males, represented majority of the households with (80.8%) and females 23, represented 19.2%of the house heads. The mean age of household reads was 50 years, of which (92.5%) of them were married, 53% owned houses and 58% had farming experience of 11.20 years the mean household size was estimated as seven persons with a mean farm size of 1.35 hectares. The mean annual household income in the study area was estimated as N 496.850.88 out of which farm income contributed N 62.4307, and off income contributed (37.57%). The mean monthly household expenditure was N 40,934.31 out of which food expenditure accounted for 40 .22%. The results also showed that the area was fairly food -secured with 52.5% being food secured and 47.67 being food insecure with mean per capita calorie intake of 36,okcal and 120.2 kcal respectively.

Finally, the results also revealed that three variables in the logit model were significant in explaining variation in the food security status of the households. These are farm size, form income and off-income. It was recommended that government should provide bigger plot of land for those farmers who are determined to take farming as business.

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Keywordsfood security status, Determinants, Economic status and Policy recommendation

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