IJOEAR: September 2019

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-5, Issue-9, September 2019

Comparing the performance of a home-made bottle drip to a commercial drip system in the production of lettuce (Lactucasativa L.)

Abstract A study was conducted in which lettuce (Lactucasativa L.) was grown in a plot at the Faculty of Agriculture at Luyengo Campus of the University of Eswatini to compare three different irrigation methods on the production of marketable heads of lettuce. The performance of lettuce under a commercial drip tape was compared with a home-made bottle drip and a hand watering can as used typically by rural people in the country. The commercial drip had emitters discharging 2 liters per hour and therefore 2 liters per hour was applied with both the home-made bottle drip and the watering can during irrigation. The irrigation frequency was every after two days for all the treatments. The plot sizes were 1.5 m x 4.0 m and there were four replications per treatment. There were eighteen lettuce plants per plot. The lettuce was grown for a period of four weeks and then harvested whole. Yield parameters measured included the plant height (cm), leaf area index (LAI), root length (cm) and the fresh head mass (grams). Significant differences (P < 0.01) between treatments were obtained for fresh lettuce head mass and root length. The commercial drip treatment had largest fresh mass at 226.8 g. It was followed by bottle drip at 184.8 g. The control had the lowest yield at 165.3 g. There were no significant differences between treatments for plant height and leaf area index. It was concluded that the home-made bottle drip irrigation method could be recommended for rural people who cannot afford to buy the commercial drip system for the production of vegetables for household consumption.

Keywords Lettuce, yield, drip, irrigation, water use efficiency.

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Assessing the availability of community water at Madlangamphisi, a community in the Hhohho region of Eswatini

Abstract The research was conducted to assess the availability of domestic water and the extent of the problems associated with water scarcity at Madlangamphisi area in the Hhohho district of Eswatini. The research was a descriptive survey. A questionnaire was used to collect both qualitative and quantitative data for the survey. A total of 169 households out of 300 households in the community were randomly selected to participate in the survey. The majority (56.2%) of the households confirmed that there was water scarcity problems in the area as the streams they used for domestic water frequently dried up during the winter months. The study showed that a majority, 51.5% used water from rivers as the main source of domestic water, while 40.2% of the people travelled for more than 1,000 m to fetch water. To cope with water scarcity problems, 43.2% of the households reduced their water consumption level during droughts while 45% practiced rooftop rainwater harvesting. The study concluded that Madlangamphisi community experienced serious water scarcity problems since they relied on unprotected water sources for domestic use. Moreover, they had to travel for more than 200 m to collect water from nearest sources which is considered an indication of water scarcity by the WHO. The study observed that there was a need to introduce a rural water supply scheme in the area to solve the water scarcity problems and that households should treat water for drinking by either boiling or use a disinfectant to eliminate pathogenic organisms in the water.

Keywords— Community, water, rural schemes.

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Extraction and Evaluation of Chitosan Enhanced by Lippia Multiflora Oil Essential on Postharvest of Tomato

Abstract Influence of chitosan and Lippia multiflora (Lm) essential oil used singly or combined was studied on postharvest tomato. Chitosan with 89.31% of DDA and solubility in acetic acid at 97.15 % was extracted from shrimp exoskeletons. Three concentrations of chitosan extracted (0.25; 0.5 and 1%) containing or not L. multiflora oil were used on Rhizopus stolonifer growth in vitro and in situ condition. In vitro condition, antifungal activity of the chitosan and Lm oil against R. stolonifer was conducted on agar media inoculated with fungal spores. Coating containing 1% chitosan incorporated with Lm efficiently inhibited fungal proliferation at 100% after 10 days. The antifungal effect of two molecules was effective when they were associated. In situ condition tomatos were coated with different solution. Antifungal effect and chemical parameters (pH and titrable acidity) were evaluated. Combination of Lm and 1% chitosan delayed efficiently R. stolonifer radial growth (2.1 mm) compared to uncoated fruit (70.37 mm) after 10 days of storage. Chitosan at 1% with or not Lm significantly reduced weight loss. Though, pH and total acidity (TA) were not influenced by coating solution.

Keywords— Chitosan, Lippia multiflora, essential oil, antifungal, Rhizopus stolonifer, tomato.

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Biogeochemical Aspects of Manganese Content in Ilex Paraguayensis SH from Paraguay by EDXRF and INAA

Abstract Yerba mate, Ilex paraguayensis, is a plant of Paraguayan origin used in infusions/macerations by the ancient inhabitants of Paraguay as a “reviver”/energy beverage and mineral supplier which consumption is lasting up today; furthermore, it is extended almost worldwide. It has been recognized in Ilex paraguayensis, diuretic, CNS stimulant, hypocholesterolemic, hepatoprotective as well as other pharmacological properties. In regard to its elemental content few studies are known despite they play fundamental tasks in the structure and functioning of plants. One of them, Mn, usually occurs as a trace in Ilex paraguayensis, at relatively high concentration and in this work its concentration in plants from Paraguay have been investigated by EDXRF at Josef Stefan Institute at Ljubljana and at University of Asunción using radioactive isotopic sources and by INAA technique in the Faculty of Chemistry at Asunción with an Am-Be neutron source. These plants are grown mainly in two regions, north and south of Eastern Paraguay; results show that their manganese content can be used as a geochemical indicator to identify the region of origin. Besides, as in other plants, absorption, transport and homeostasis of Mn could be attributed to the action of different NRAMPs. In regard to its normal high content in healthy yerba plants, Mn in excess could be hidden in nodes and vacuoles being exported afterwards.

Keywords Ilex paraguayensis, Eastern Paraguay, yerba mate, Mn content, NRAMP, transporter.

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Decitabine Self Monitoring in Unstable Methylation of DNMT Patients: A Quasi Systematic Review


Background: Grey zone or intermediate zone CGG repeat in Pre-mutation FMR1 gene become in high prevalence in tropical rainforest area.

Problem: Bipolar disorder and Major depressive disorder used epigenetic drugs inhibitor to ameliorating their mood as well anticancer agent, decitabine are broadly used. Meanwhile, basic knowledge remains largely unknown.

Objective: Demethylation effect in grey zone methylation instability has to be controlled whereas up till now are to be disturbing the social behavior activities.

Hypothesis: Demethylation drive through, from >34 to <26 CGG repeat has behavior abnormalities.

Method: Quasi-Systematic Review with Bayesian network analysis using Science Direct and Ebsco-host search engine.

Result: One PRISMA Systematic Review flowchart to got the references and one table of 16 references to answer the methylation and demethylation in global living related to decitabine are recorded.

Discussion: Decitabine effect in epigenetic memory in mammals and neuro developmental, cognitive, behavioral and physical changes in grey zone and carrier permutation FMR1 gene are scanned.

Conclusion: Demethylation to high as well low grey zone CGG count could be self monitor due to instable methylation.

Keywords: decitabine, hypomethylation, CGG repeat, tremor, cognitive, epigenetic instability.

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Disease in Plant and Animal: Similarities and Differences

Abstract According to current human opinion and knowledge living organisms can be divided into seven kingdoms. The similarities and differences between these seven groups also the relationships between them are very interesting. These relationships lead to creation the different kinds of biological terms such as, mutualism, commensalism and parasitism. So plants and animal also microorganisms have to fight sometimes. The mechanisms of pathogenicity and the mechanisms of defense can be either similar or different. Emphasizing aspect of pathogenicity of some microorganisms, such as Salmonella, Fusarium and Tobacco mosaic virus can case to disease in plants and animals.

Keywords Animal diseases, Defense system, Plant diseases, Pathogenicity.

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The Effect of Mulching on Soil Moisture Retention and Yield of Lettuce (Lactuca Sativa L.)

Abstract An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of different mulching materials on soil moisture retention and yield of lettuce at the greenhouse located at Luyengo campus of the University of Eswatini during the months of January and February, 2019. The treatments consisted of grass mulch (GM), Plastic mulch (PM), leaf debris mulch (LM), and no mulch (NM) which was used as a control. Each of the treatments had four replications. The organic mulch was applied at a thickness of 10 cm, and the plots for experiments were randomly selected. Each plant received 600 cm3 of water every 3 days using a homemade drip irrigation system (equivalent to 6 mm per irrigation circle). Data on soil moisture content was collected using the gravimetric method every 3 days (before irrigation).The growth parameters of the lettuce plants that were collected weekly were plant height, leaf number and leaf area. Both wet weight and dry weight yield were determined for each plot at the end of the experiment (six weeks after planting). Data collected was coded and entered into SPSS computer software. Data analysis was conducted using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the least significance difference (LSD) test to determine if means were significantly different. The results showed that GM treatment had high mean moisture retention at 9.3%. It was followed by PM and LM at 8.9%. The lowest moisture retention was realized from the control (No mulching) at 7.9%.The differences in mean moisture retention was significant between NM and NM (p<0.05). The same pattern was observed for the growth parameters, where GN had highest values and the control had the lowest values. The wet mass yield was highest for GM, at 164.7 g. The yield from LM was 149.3 g. It was followed by PM at 141.3 g. The lowest yield was obtained from the control at 108 g. The difference in mean yields for GM and NM were significant (p<0.05). They were not significantly different for all the other treatments (p>0.050. It was concluded from the experiment that grass mulching resulted in improved moisture retention and high yields.

Keywords—Drippers, irrigation, moisture, mulching, yield.

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