Design and performance improvement of a low noise amplifier with different matching techniques and stability network
Abstract— This paper proposes the design of a Low noise amplifier (LNA) for 5 to 6GHz range of frequency. The design of LNA plays an important role in the communication receiver as it has to amplify the received signal without adding much noise. The performance of the L NA is analyzed for different matching network for input return loss, output return loss, reverse gain and forward gain. The stability of the LNA has been increased by introducing stability network. The proposed LNA with L-L matching and with stability outperforms the other design. The design is performed using Advanced Design System tool. The proposed LNA achieves better performance compared to the existing design.
Keywords— Component, formatting, style, styling, insert.
Implementation of Power Efficiency and Error Control Coding in Optical Wireless Systems for Vignetting Correction
Abstract— Currently, the demand for high speed wireless multimedia services has grown to a great level. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Optical Wireless Communication (OWC) can be an excellent supplemental technology to Radio Frequency (RF) links to achieve high transmission rates. One form of MIMO OWC is a pixelated imaging system which transmits information via a series of pixelated image frames. A gradual fall-off in illumination at the edges of a received image will occur due to the Vignetting effect. The Vignetting effect causes attenuation, Inter-Carrier-Interference (ICI) and increased power consumption in the spatial frequency domain. The system performance can be improved by applying a Vignetting Estimation and Equalization scheme. Also an efficient algorithm for reducing the power ratio is implemented. Error Control codes (ECC) is applied for eliminating transmission bit errors. The proposed method shows improvement in the system BER performance.
Keywords— Optical Wireless Communication, MIMO, OFDM, Spatial OFDM, Vignetting, BER, ICI, Attenuation.
Implementation of Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA) Based Logic Circuit in 4-Channel Capacitance to Digital Converter for Capacitive Sensing Solution
Abstract— The capacitive sensing with grounded capacitor sensor is a very low power,low cost high-resolution contact-less sensing technique that can be applied to a variety of applications ranging from proximity sensing and gesture recognition to material analysis and remote liquid level sensing.As QCA based logic circuits have advantages in simulation time, area, less complexity, etc. It would be possible to get better output in such parameters by using QCA based logic circuits.
Keywords— Capacitive sensing, QCA logic gate.
Abstract— In recent years Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) is gaining large interest in research areas because of its fast response and its high sensitivity. SPR is a detection method which is used to analyse the bimolecular interaction taking place near metal-dielectric interface. This is a technique with which we can measure the small variation finding in the refractive index near the surface of metal with higher sensitivity. This change in refractive index is measured due to the interaction in the molecules. In this paper we are designing a sensor which can detect Hepatitis virus present in water by using this SPR technique. Simulation results show a distinct shift in the wavelength spectrum for chemicals in water and normal water .This SPR based sensor is highly sensitive. Here channel waveguide dependent SPR sensor structure is used and simulation is done by Rsoft Full Wave tool.
Keywords— Water, SPR, Refractive Index
An Efficient VLSI Architecture of a Clock-gating Turbo Decoder for Wireless Sensor Network Applications
Abstract— Wireless sensor network can be considered to be energy constrained wireless scenarios, since the sensors are operated for extended periods of time, while relying on batteries that are small, lightweight and inexpensive. The conventional turbo decoder architecture requires high chip area and hence high power consumption. This motivated the proposed system to design the decoder architecture with high throughput, less decoding iteration and less memory requirement. Clock gating is a technique that can be used to control the power dissipated by clock net. The proposed work is implemented using clock gating technique in order to reduce the power consumption. The previous turbo decoder architectures uses optimal-log based algorithm which has the complexity about 75% and hence leads to time and energy consumption due to sequential operations. Whereas the proposed architecture uses the fundamental Add Compare Select (ACS) operation. Due to the parallel processing operation of ACS blocks the proposed architecture tend to have low processing steps, so that low transmission energy and less complexity about 71%. The proposed work implementation has a throughput of 1.03 Mb/s, memory requirement of 128 Kbps, power consumption of about 0.016(mV) and requires 0.010(A) of current. Comparing to the optimal-log based algorithm in the proposed lookup table based architecture the complexity is reduced by 4% and by implementing the clock-gating technique the power consumption is reduced by 38%.
Keywords— ACS block, Clock gating technique, Lookup table architectures, Throughput, Transmission energy.
Abstract— Efficient spectrum management algorithms are necessary to achieve immense success in wireless communications. Cognitive radio seems to be a panacea for increased utilization of licensed spectrum. Investigate the ergodic uplink resource allocation problem for secure communication in relay-assisted orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA)-based cognitive radio networks (CRNs) in the presence of a set of passive eavesdroppers where relay nodes assist the legitimate users to transmit their messages. andmaximize the system goodput of the CRN while satisfying the interference constraints of the PU bands both probabilistically and for the worst case scenario. The original probabilistic optimization problem is approximated and transformed into a convex deterministic form, and a closed-form analytical solution for power allocation is derived. The closed-form power allocation solution helps us to develop an efficient relay selection scheme based on Hungarian algorithm. In this project, consider uncertainty on the estimated values of CSI between different transmitters and receivers, e.g., CSI between each legitimate transmitter and its corresponding receiver and CSI of each legitimate user and each eavesdropper. Utilize the worst-case robust formulation to find power and sub-carrier allocations in such a way that under the worst condition of error, the regulatory constraints imposed to CRN are satisfied and the secrecy rate of each secondary legitimate user is stabilized. It is well known that the robust approaches impose a high computational complexity to the system and reduce the system performance as they conservatively consider the error in the maximum extent.
Keywords— Cognitive radio networks; Ergodic resource allocation; OFDM;PU; Perfect channel state information; physical-layer security; relay-assisted transmission; robust optimization theory.
Digital Image Watermark Protection and Self-Recovery using Discrete Wavelet Transformand SPIHT Coding
Abstract— Embedding a watermark in the original image has been widely used to avoid tampering or damaging in the area of image forensics. This paper explains about detecting the damaged/tampered area of the received image and a technique to recover the lost information in the tampered areas. Since the Most Significant Bits/ Reference bits contains the entire information about the image, the Least Significant Bits/check bits are used to find the tampered zones. But if the reference bits are lost, the whole image gets corrupted or erased. So an appropriate channel code is used to protect the reference bits. In the proposed method, RS (REED-SOLOMON) channel coding is used. While doing so, parity bits are added to the reference bits. Also by knowing the tampered location, erasure error can be found from an image tampering model. Recovering an image includes the detection of erasure locations with the help of redundancy bits at the decoder side. Our proposed method is simple to implement and better performance is achieved in the retrieval of tampered image at the time of recovery.
Adaptive Detection and Classification of Life Threatening Arrhythmias in ECG Signals Using Neuro SVM
Abstract—Electrocardiogram is a method of measuring the electrical activities of heart. Every portion of ECG is very essential for the diagnosis of different cardiac problems. But the amplitude and duration of ECG signal is usually corrupted by different noises. Here a broader study for denoising every types of noise involved with real ECG signal is done. Different types of adaptive filters are considered to reduce the ECG signal Base Line Interference. Hence adaptive filters, now a day, are used for artefact removal from ECG signals. Adaptive filters update their coefficients according to the requirement. There are various adaptive algorithms such as Least Mean Square (LMS), Recursive Least Square (RLS), Normalized Least Mean Square (NLMS) etc are present. Moreover, there is one more method is described which is patch based and used for artifact rejection from ECG signals. This method was previously used only for image denoising but now it has been using for artefact rejection from biomedical signals.Here, Least Mean Square (LMS) algorithm and patch based method has been implemented for denoising the ECG signal.
Keywords—Electrocardiogram, LMS, RLS, NLMS, Denoising, Adaptive filters, Signal Processing.
Abstract— Reduced-reference image quality assessment (RRIQA) provides a practical solution for automatic image quality evaluations in various applications where only partial information about the original reference image is accessible. In this paper, multifractal analysis is personalized to reduced-reference image quality assessment (RR-IQA). A new RR-QA approach is proposed, which measures the difference of spatial arrangement between the reference image and the distorted image in terms of spatial regularity measured by fractal dimension. An image is first shown in wavelet domain using duel tree complex wavelet transform. Then, fractal dimensions are computed on each wavelet sub-band and concatenated as a feature vector. Finally, the extracted features are pooled as the quality score of the distorted image using ℓ1 distance. Compared with existing methods, the proposed approach measures image quality from the perspective of the spatial distribution of image patterns. The proposed method was evaluated on seven public benchmark data sets. Experimental results have demonstrated the excellent performance of the proposed method in comparison with state-of-the-art approaches.
Keywords— RR-IQA, multifractal, spatial arrangement, wavelet, sub-band, DTCWT
Abstract— Quality assurance of packaged products is of critical importance in the pharmaceutical industry so as to overcome expensive manufacturer recalls or potentially fatal accidents. This paper proposes a low cost yet efficient automatic quality monitoring system of tablet packs for small scale pharmaceutical companies. The proposed system inspects tablet packs by installing a camera and by using embedded vision technology. LabView is used to process the image for fault detection, using IMAQ vision toolbox to check for missing tablets, damaged tablets, dimension mismatch and colour difference between tablets. Further, identified faulty tablet packs moving on a conveyor belt will be rejected by the rejection arm automatically upon receiving control signals from the microcontroller.
Keywords— Embedded Vision, IMAQ vision toolbox, LabView.
Abstract— Steganography is nothing but the covered writing or secret writing. It is the science of secret communication. steganography is used to hide the survival of the message from unauthorized party. Images are the basic forms of transmitting information in the visual format. With the help of Image encryption methods any particular set of images can be transmitted without worrying about security. In this paper a very simple and real time algorithm which is used for the encryption of the images. In the proposed paper the message image is compressed by using the SPIHT method of lossless compression and then it is encoded in to the other image. Image contains a combination of RGB layers. If we consider a pixel as an 8 bit value than each pixel has the value in the range of 0 to 255. This algorithm compress the secret message image by SPIHT and convert in to a binary sequence, divides the binary sequence in to a blocks, change the order of block using a key-based randomly generated permutation, concatenates the permuted blocks can be changed in to a permuted binary sequence, and then utilizes the Least-Significant-Bit (LSB) approach to embed the permuted binary sequence into image. After the completion of the pixel value changing all the images is placed in a sequential manner. In the decoding side the message image is decoded and decompressed so that we can get the message image.
Keywords— Steganography, SPHIT, LSB, Wavelet transform, Data hiding.
Abstract— Wireless network technologies have realize new opportunities from wireless body area network (WBAN) for continuous remote monitoring patient’s vital signals in the hospital and remote health care environment. Monitoring patient glucose level use of WBAN. Sensors node is capable of sensing and processing the vital signals as well as communicating to the remote monitoring system. Patient diabetes signals transfer to the hospital server and the doctors system to communicate continuously. Glucose monitoring is an integral part of diabetes management, and the maintenance of physiological blood glucose concentration is the only way for diabetic patients to avoid the life-threatening diabetic complications. Continuous glucose monitoring provides maximal information about the shifting of blood glucose levels throughout the day and facilitates the making of optimal treatment decision for a diabetic patient. This report discusses continuous glucose monitoring in terms of its purpose technology target pop elations, accuracy, clinical indications, outcomes, and problems. Personal Digital Assistant or smart phone can be used as PD. Based on the existing architecture mentioned above, we propose design concept for virtual doctor server (VDS) to support various patient health care services. VDS will keep the historical data about the patient to generate the daily tips and advice for him, call the doctor or emergency squad if required it can provide first aid assistance instructions on patient or any of his close relative’s PDA’s.
Keywords— Wireless Body Area Network, personal digital assistant, virtual doctor server.
Abstract— This paper deals with a analysis and study of denoising of one dimensional voice signal and also compression and decomposition of two dimensional and three dimensional images using wavelets. Analysis of image and data compression are rapidly used in field of Medical data analysis, Telemedicine, ECG analysis, Texture analysis etc. The analysis is based on transform of signal and image using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) algorithm. The performance of this algorithm is better achieved for wavelet based compression of signals and images. A simulation result shows the technique of DWT which provides sufficient high compression ratio.
Keywords— compression, DWT, decomposition, de-noising, wavelets.
Abstract— In automobile industries, manufacturing of engine parts undergoes various processes like Milling, Drilling, etc. Because of these processes aluminium burrs are generated on the component. Thus, washing of a component is important to ensure quality of the product before assembling in engine. Washing is done initially with the hot chemical solution in washing chamber and then hot air is blown to remove the coolant mist, aluminium burrs, dust, dirt, oil, etc and to dry the component. If the desired solution level is not maintained and the temperature of the solution exceeds the safe limit in the cleaning tank, the heater may get failed due to inherent internal heat radiation, and desired temperature cannot be achieved and components quality will also be affected. Hence this project aims at enhancing the quality of washing machine by providing an interlock mechanism for heater failure with the use of level sensor and temperature sensor. This interlock is done in MITSUBISHI PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) using GX-Works-2 software for programming.
Keywords— heater failure, level sensor, temperature sensor, interlock, MITSUBISHI PLC.
Abstract— Mobile Sensor Network is the collection of independent and scattered sensors with capacity of mobility. Mobile Sensor Network can simply be defined as Wireless Sensor Network in which sensor nodes are mobile. In recent years, Mobility of Sensor has been utilized to improve the target coverage quality and network connectivity in randomly deployed mobile sensor networks. Target coverage and Network connectivity are two main challenging issues of mobile sensor networks. Target coverage aims to cover specified points of interest in the deployment region of a WSN. Network connectivity is necessary for the sensors in WSN to collect data and report data to the sink node. Mobile Sensor Deployment (MSD) problem in Distributed manner is one of the main challenges in WSN. The MSD problems offend decomposed into two sub- problems: the Target Coverage (TCOV) problem and Network Connectivity (NCON) problem. So Distributed Center deployment (DCD) Algorithm and Virtual force Algorithm (VFA) has been proposed for MWSN. Distributed Center Deployment (DCN) algorithm to solve MSD problem in distributed manner in order to minimize the energy consumption and to increase network lifetime .Virtual Force Algorithm (VFA) are proposed to minimize the total movement distance of the sensor and to achieve maximum sensor field coverage.
Keywords— Mobile sensor network, Target coverage, Network connectivity, Mobility, Virtual force.