IJOEAR: February 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-2, February 2018

Climate Risk Insurance for Resilience: A Systematic Review

Abstract This study developed and conducted a systematic mixed-methods grey literature methodology to characterise and identify climate risk insurance initiative in building resilience in developing countries. The study found that climate risk insurance can help developing countries build resilience against extreme weather events. However, there are barriers to the initiative. This is because of the issue of lack of climate data instruments. The collaboration between the public and private sectors is one way to overcome the challenges of implementing climate risk insurance. This systematic review methodology presents crucial insights on the state-of-the-art knowledge on climate risk insurance and resilience in developing countries.

Keywords Climate Change, Climate Risk Insurance, Developing countries, Systematic Review.

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Kinetics and Mathematical Modeling of Microwave Drying of Sri Lankan Black Pepper (Piper nigrum)

Abstract Drying characteristics of black pepper (Piper nigrum) was investigated in a microwave drying system. Drying experiments were carried out at three different microwave power levels, 180, 360 and 540 W and the moisture content was measured at different time intervals. Experimental results were fitted to seven thin layer drying models; Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Midilli et. al., Weibull and Kaleta et. al.. Statistical indicators; Coefficient of determination (R2), Root mean square error (RMSE) and reduced chi square values (c2) showed Midilli et. al., Weibull and Kaleta et. al. models give better fit to the experimental values. Drying rate constants and the equation constants were compared and analyzed. Similarities of the drying models were observed and discussed with respect to the equation parameters. The absence of the constant drying rate period in drying curves show the drying of black pepper lies totally in the falling rate period where the drying rate is controlled by the moisture diffusion. Maximum drying rates observed were 0.02, 0.05 and 0.08 kg moisture/kg of dry material/ min at 180, 360 and 540 W power levels. Results revealed drying rate constant and the effective moisture diffusivity values increases with the microwave power level. Drying rate constants were 0.03, 0.09 and 0.16 min-1 and the effective moisture diffusivity values were 2.43 x 10-10, 4.87 x 10-10, 1.42 x 10-9 m2/s for power levels of 180, 360 and 540 W respectively. The Activation energy of black pepper calculated based on the Arrhenius equation is 86.7 W/g.

Keywords Black pepper, Microwave drying, thin layer drying models, diffusivity.

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What do we know about adaptation to climate change in Africa? A review of grey literature


Background: Africa is one of the regions that the impacts of climate change will be felt so much due to poor adaptive capacity and the reliance on agricultural production for human sustainability. While climate change is real in Africa, the continent has been building resilience through adaptation strategies.

Objective: To understand what adaptation strategies African countries have developed in response to and in anticipation of climate change.

Methods: The study reviews documents, reports and projects in the form of grey literature and content analysis was used to analyse these documents manually.

Results: Climate change has mostly affected the agricultural sector thereby reducing agricultural production. This has led to the introduction and implantation of adaptation policies and strategies on the African continent. However, there are barriers militating against adaptation measures.

Conclusion: In building resilience, some adaptation policies and strategies have been initiated mostly at the local levels with the financial support from donor agencies.

Keywords: Adaptation, Africa, Climate change, Grey literature.

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Poultry manure application and fallow improves peanut production in a sandy soil under continuous cultivation

Abstract To meet our food security demands, Papua New Guinea (PNG) needs to improve smallholder subsistence agriculture by promoting the production of cash crops that mature early and have a high market value. Peanut is a typical example of a cash crop which potentially has a high market value, but pod yields are low due to declinein soil quality. A field experiment was conducted under 4 different land use systems (LUS) to evaluate the effects of continuous peanut cultivation on peanut pod yield and on selected soil properties. Peanut pod yield declined significantly under the continuous peanut and peanut/corn rotation systems; while the poultry manure and land fallow systems significantly increased pod yield. Over the 3 cropping seasons, significant changes in organic carbon; extractable potassium and CEC in all cropping systems occurred, while changes in total N was significant in the peanut/corn rotation and poultry manure cropping systems only. No significant changes in bulk density; field capacity; electrical conductivity; soil pH and available phosphorus were observed in all the 4 LUS over the 3 cropping seasons. We suggest that adequate fallow periods of more than 1 year and poultry manures are applied to enhance soil quality and improve peanut productivity and/or sustain peanut production in marginal lands under continuous cultivation.

Keywords Continuous cultivation, land use systems, peanut pod yield, soil properties.

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Effect of Nitrobenzene granules and Seaweed extracts on biochemical contents of Arachis hypogaea callus culture.

Abstract The present study is aimed to evaluate the effect of organic extracts (benzene, diethyl ether and water) of seaweeds (Halimeda gracilis, Ceramium rubrum and Cystophyllum muricatum) and nitrobenzene granuleson biochemical contents of Arachishypogea L. callusunder in vitro conditions. The callus of Arachishypogea L. was obtained from the leaf explants on MS medium containing 2, 4-D (1 mgL-1) and BAP (0.5 mg L-1). The mass multiplication of callus was achieved at 1mg L-1 of 2, 4-D and 0.5 mg L-1 of GA3. The calli were then treated with different concentrations (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 mg L-1) of seaweed extracts and Nitrobenzene granules. Total carbohydrate, total protein and total chlorophyll contents were analyzed at 5, 10 and 15 days intervals. The total carbohydrate content was high (3.7mg/100mg) in callus treated with Benzene extract of Ceramium rubrumat 1.5 mg L-1 on 15th day. The total protein content was increased (6.9mg/100 mg) in callus treated with Benzene extract of Cystophyllum muricatum at 0.5 mg L-1 on 5th day and the total chlorophyll content was lower (0.36mg/100mg) in Nitrobenzene granules at 0.5mg L-1 in 5th day when compare to control. The present study reveals the positive role of different extracts of seaweeds on increasing the biochemical contents of callus culture of A.hypogea. The extracts can be further evaluated for their role on enhanced regeneration of plants from callus culture.

Keywords Nitrobenzene, Seaweed extract, Arachis hypogaea, Halimeda gracilis, Ceramium rubrum and Cystophyllum muricatum.

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Process Optimization, Consumer testing and Shelf-life  Determination of Canned “Halang-halang”: A Filipino Traditional Food

Abstract Halang-halang and tagutoare the Filipino names given to the hot and spicy pulutan (finger food) prepared from finely chopped across of young native chickens stewed in coconut milk with chopped chillies and spices. The basic formulation and process of halang-halang need to be assessed especially as canned product for longer shelf life and wider distribution. Thus, this research optimizes the formulation, processing conditions and determines shelf-life and proximate composition of canned halang-halang. Three identified factors were used in the optimization experiment following the Box-Benhken Design (BBD)with 15 treatments. Three levels of coconut milk (0, 20, 40%), sautéing time (0, 3, 6 minutes) and processing time (30, 40 and 50 minutes) were used. Different treatments were subjected to sensory evaluation, optimization and verification test. Response surface regression (RSREG) analysis was used to determine the optimum level of coconut milk, sautéing and processing time combinations. Optimum formulation was achieved at mid-level coconut milk (20%), longer (50 minutes) or shorter (30 minutes) processing time and at any sautéing time. Both coconut milk level and processing time significantly influenced the sensory qualities of the product, while sautéing time showed no significant effect in all response variables. Verification test confirms that optimum formulation is better in acceptability scores compared to treatment outside the optimum region. Both the developed “plain” and “hot” halang-halang formulations have high preference from young and adult consumers. After 15 months of storage, canned halang-halang products were still microbiologically acceptable showing a microbial count much lower than the safe level.

Keywords Traditional food, Box-Benhken Design, canning, proximate analysis, shelf-life determination.

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Photodynamic Effect. Experience of Application of Photosensibility Series for Monitoring Microbiological Water Pollution

Abstract The kinetics of the destruction of standard museum strains of microorganisms as a result of photodynamic action of red light and a number of non-toxic photosensitizers in the process of water conditioning has been studied experimentally. Prokaryotic cells of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, eukaryotic cells of Candida albicans ATCC 24433 were used as the objects of the study. Eosin H, sodium fluorescein, methylene blue and riboflavin (vitamin B2) in concentrations of 10 mg/l served as photosensitizers. A photodynamic effect was established with respect to microorganism cells, leading to their death in the presence of photosensitizers and red light. It has been shown that riboflavin and fluorescein are the most effective for eukaryotes (on the example of Candida albicans ATCC 24433), which help to reduce the number of colonies of cells in 2 hours of observations by more than 3.0 and 11.0 times, respectively. It was found that the death of prokaryotic cells in the case of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218 is most effective in causing methylene blue, riboflavin (vitamin B2). For 2 hours of observations in their presence due to photodynamic action, microflora decreases in 36.0 and 90.0 times, respectively. The photodynamic effect of eosin against the microorganisms under study was the smallest, which is explained by the peculiarities of its chemical structure, including phenolic groups, which are known to exhibit an antioxidant effect. It is shown that fluorescein and methylene blue are most promising for effective lethal action against pathogenic microflora in pool water. Riboflavin is most effective for purification of drinking water used for cooking and drinking in public, including pre-school and school meals, which will allow not only to exclude the possibility of mass poisonings, but also to provide a daily intake of vitamin B2 with a glass of water.

Keywords photodynamic effect, methylene blue, riboflavin, fluorescein, red light, death of museum strains of Escherichia coli ATCC 35218, Candida albicans ATCC 24433.

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Screening of Maize Genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight (Bipolaris Maydis) during summer in Rampur, Chitwan

Abstract Screening of 20 maize genotypes against Southern Leaf Blight of maize (Bipolaris maydis (Nisik) Shoemaker) was carried out in RCBD in National Maize Research Program, Rampur, Nepal during June to September, 2015. The area of research field was 315 m2. Each genotype had two rows per plot of 7.5m2 with two replication. Disease incidence was taken for three times at 43, 53 and 63 DAS. Disease scoring was done as percentage of leaf area infected on individual plant at 7 days interval starting from 58 days after sowing for 5 times and disease severity and mean AUDPC was calculated. Also the yield was calculated. Shade house experiment was carried out in a Completely Randomized Design with 3 replication on 20 genotypes by artificial inoculation at 3-4 leaf stage with a pure culture suspension of Bipolaris maydis (4×104conidia per ml) .and disease incidence and survival days of plant were recorded. Among the genotypes disease severity varied in the field. Highly significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Southern Leaf Blight severity, Area Under Disease Progress Curve and grain yield. Genotypes with mean AUDPC values from 200-250, 250-300 and above 300 were categorized as moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible. Disease severity was highest on genotype Rampur 24, 07 SADVI and lowest on BGBYPOP, RML-32/RM-17 and RAMS03F08. Highest maize yield (4.44 ton/ha) was recorded on RML-32/RML-17 and least (1.41 ton/ha) was obtained in ZM-627.In shade house, Rampur-24 followed by 07 SADVI, Rampur 27 died earlier and RML-32/RML-17 and BGBYPOP survived to the longest periods after inoculation. Disease Susceptibility pattern was similar in both field and shade house condition. The genotypes RML-32/RML-17, BGBYPOP, RAMS03F08 and TLBRS07F16 could be developed as resistant varieties to Southern Leaf Blight of maize and also as high yielders during summer under Chitwan and similar conditions.

Keywords AUDPC, Bipolaris maydis, disease scoring, inoculation, resistant.

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Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in Sediments and Aquatic macrophytes in the River Nun, Amasoma Axises, Niger Delta, Nigeria.

Abstract The Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon (TPH) in the bottom sediments and aquatic macrophytes of the River Nun at AmasomaAxises was investigated in December, 2017. This was done to establish the existing levels of TPH in the River in order to ascertain the degree of its threat to the environment. Benthic samples were collected close to the shore with the aid of a hand trowel and put in aluminum foils, while macrophyte samples were collected by hand pulling and transported in plastic bags for laboratory analysis. Data were subjected to statistical analysis using the Microsoft Excell® tool pack. Regression analysis was employed in order to determine the correlation between TPH in bottom sediments with that in plant tissues (leaf, stem and root). Analysis of variance was employed at the 95% confidence level to determine the degree of significance in interaction of TPH between sediments and macrophyte tissues and between macrophyte tissues (leaf, stem, and root). Duncan multiple range test was use to compare means. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF) was calculated for TPH in order to estimate the absorption rate of TPH between sediments and plant tissues (leaf, stem and root). Results indicate that TPH were recorded in sediments and plant tissues. TPH concentrations were greater in plant tissues than in sediments. Concentration of TPH showed concentrations indicating that root> stem> leaf in most stations. The relationships between the TPH attributes indicated strong association between Leaves and stem (r2 = 0.92). Strong negative association was also observed between sediment and stem (r2 = -0.83) while sediment and leaves (r2 = -0.64) had moderate negative relationship. It can be concluded that the River Nun at AmasomaAxises is mildly polluted due to land based activities and therefore there is a need to enact water use regulatory ordinances to protect its ecology. Sediment organisms and plants are vital links to man in the food chain. This may portend danger in the future.

Keywords Total Petroleum Hydrocarbon, Sediments, Macrophytes, Nun River. Amasoma.

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