Abstract— We studied the glyphosate effect on the germination and chlorophyll content of two corn varieties. The first variety is local “beldi” not improved and the second is a variety selected and imported. Our analysis showed that the imported variety is more tolerant than local. The latter would have been affected by the direct effects of glyphosate by oxidative stress manifesting itself by a strong inhibition of germination and an increased degradation of chlorophyll. However, the imported variety behaved as capable of degrading glyphosate to aminomethylphosphonic acid resulting in improved herbicide resistance.
The Effects of Rural Labour Migration Process on Occupational Distribution, Family Facilities and Livelihoods
Abstract— Migration of human beings is a phenomenon which has historical roots and wider implications. Migrations have economic genesis but resulting socio-political cultural ramifications. In economic parlance, migration is perceived as when a person is engaged or likely to engage in a remunerative activity in a place of which he is not a native or national. The migrants send remittances to their relatives in the rural areas and these remittance-receiving households use the remittances for various purposes. With this background keeping in mind the present study was conducted with some objectives, such as, to recognize the changing pattern of occupational scenario of the study area; to identify the changes of family facilities before and after migration and to compare the income differences before and after migration. The study was conducted on 100 numbers of respondents in three villages named Chengerkuthi Khalisamari, Jatamari, and Choto Khalisamari under Khalisamari Gram Panchayat of Coochbehar district of West Bengal. The statistical method used for analysis and interpretation of raw data were mean, frequency percentage and paired ‘t’ test. It is noticeable due to high remunerative and regularity of income, the youth and middle aged group are more attracted for migration. The study also reveals migration process transformed the occupational distribution of the respondents massively. The income variation factor before and after migration are also in favour of migration. It is evident that after migration the family daily life standard changed towards a positive direction. The number of cell phone users and bank account holder also increased.
Cost and Return Analysis of Local Chicken Marketing in Mubi North Local Government Area of Adamawa State, Nigeria
Abstract— The study examined the cost and return of local chicken marketing in Mubi north local government area of Adamawa state. Data were collected from 120 respondents with aid of structured questionnaire using purposive and random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics, net income analysis, marketing efficiency (ME) were the analytical tools employed. The result revealed that local chicken marketing in the study area is mostly undertaken by the male gender (85%) who were in their active age between the age of 30-60 years. Majority of them had one form of formal education or the other and have marketing experience of more than five years. On the profitability of the enterprise a total variable cost ₦7887.00 was estimated using 2014 price of input and output. Cost of transportation accounting for 72.84%. The total revenue from the enterprise was estimated ₦13, 100 given the net income of ₦5213 an indication that the enterprise is profitable. A high marketing efficiency of 160% was computed an indication that the profit maximization motive of local chicken marketing is assured. It is recommended that the marketers should be motivated and encouraged with soft loans so as to expand their production.
Evaluation of the contribution of forest rangelands in the forage balance in the western part of the Central Middle Atlas: Case of the forests of Azrou, Jbel Aoua South and Sidi M’guild
Abstract— Range management in Morocco is based on traditional practices where the land is used by a community for grazing by sheep. In the Atlas Mountains rangelands and forest lands are extensively used by grazing animals and even if the vegetation is abundant the cover is ongoing degradation especially in summer. The forest as a rich ecosystem where the plant community is constituted by Quercus and Cedrus sp. where overgrazing has an negative impact on the vegetation inducing degradation. The bred of sheep is Timahdit a bred which is adapted to the high mountain cold of the winter. The range is overgrazed by sheep and undergoes profound mutation with major degradation due to higher pressure by the increasing number of animals of the community which have the right to use the herbaceous cover. This study have the objective to determine the contribution of the range to meet the needs of the animals in the occidental region of the atlas mountains and determine the difference between the potential of the range and the need of the grazing sheep. The results showed that the herbaceous cover is over used by high numbers of animals. So a more rational use of the range is necessary to stop the degradation and sustain the production potential of the forest. The participatory method which includes the population in the decision making will allow better use of the range and sustain the resources and the forest by stopping degradation and a rational use of the range.