IJOEAR : July 2016

Agriculture journal and environmental journal has published July issue 2016

Characterization of Diatraea saccharalis in Sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) with Field Spectroradiometry

Abstract Applications of remote sensing in agriculture have increased in recent years, especially for the development of sensors with better spatial and spectral resolutions. The objective of this study was to assess and evaluate the spatial and spectral variability of infection Diatraea saccharalis of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum) through optical sensors in the Huasteca, Mexico. The methodology consisted in to make in situ measurements with a hyperspectral spectroradiometer in areas with and without apparent damage by the plague. For spatial and scaling representation Landsat 8 images were used. The data obtained in the field showed the spectral behavior of the plague; and the space-spectral reflectance variation was made by visibles and infrared bands for the vegetation. This process is an important approach to take a look from the geographical point of view to the problems related to the risk assessment of plague and diseases, their incidence, spread and severity, as well as support for sampling and monitoring activities. The used of these technologies provides advantages in research and in the implementation of precision farming techniques.

Keywords Remote sensing, Spectroradiometry, Diatraea saccharalis, Saccharum officinarum, NDVI

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Bacteria of tomatoes managed with well water and pond water: Impact of agricultural water sources on carposphere microbiota

Abstract We know that contamination of crops by human pathogens can occur in agricultural settings but we still do not understand precisely which environmental sources represent the highest risks. Human pathogens maybe introduced by wind, worker hygiene, plant mediated factors, insects, water sources, or any combination of these factors. To safeguard against risks to consumers from agricultural waters, FSMA regulations for U.S. crop production require the use of water with an average of less than 126 CFU per 100 ml for applications that come in direct contact with a crop. Due to availability/scarcity however, water from other sources such as agricultural ponds is commonly used. To better understand risks that may be associated with the use of “surface”(often higher microbial load) water sources, we described the bacterial microbiota associated with an agricultural pond, an agricultural well and the corresponding microbiota of tomato carpospheres managed with each water source (also described as phyllosphere). 16S rRNA gene amplicons were used for bacterial profiling of waters and tomato surfaces at four time points over a growing season. Microbial profiles differentiated surface and ground water samples throughout the season, however no significant influence on tomato fruit surfaces could be correlated to either water source. These results suggest that in certain cases, environmental pressures such as wind, dust or other airborne factors may have a more significant impact on the surface microbiology of field crops than irrigation or management water sources do.

Keywords Phyllosphere, carposphere, tomatoes, agricultural water sources, pond water, well water, bacterial microbiota, 16SrRNA gene.

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Plant growth promoting characterization of soil bacteria isolated from petroleum contaminated soil

Abstract Contaminant-degrading bacteria can be included among the plant-growth promoting bacteria; because the presence of contaminants, in general produce negatively effects on plant’s growth; thus, the elimination of the inhibiting contaminants will benefit them. Although contaminant-degrading strains have been traditionally isolated from various environments; the number of studies that reported the isolation and identification of soil bacteria with contaminant- degrading abilities have increased. The aim of this study was to characterized microbial strains isolated from petroleum contaminated soil by plant growth promotion traits to recommend them as potential bioinoculants. In this work, five of the six soil isolates were classified as Indole Acetic Acid higher producers and only one of them as lower producer. Sporosarcina aquimarina strain -Q3 and Bacillus cereus strain +F2 tested in Axonopus affinis plantlets bioassay, showed that these isolates were the most effective promoters of this plant species; therefore, these soil bacteria with possible hydrocarbon degradation ability could be considered as potential bioinoculants and can be recommended with a practical importance for the rhizoremediation of petroleum contaminated sites and plant growth promotion.

Keywords Soil bacteria, Hydrocarbons, Indole acetic acid, Plant growth promoters.

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Effect of Water Stress during the Spike Growth Period on Wheat Yield in Contrasting Weather

Abstract The effect of water deficit on spring wheat yield (Triticum aestivum L.) was analyzed focusing on crop growth and dry weight partitioning during the spike growth period (SGP). Two levels of water availability (rainfed and irrigated) were tested in two locations (Córdoba and Balcarce, Argentina). The degree of source limitation for grain filling was greater under rainfed conditions (12%) than under irrigation (5%); however, water stress affected yield by 40% (mean of all experiments), mainly through grain number m-2 (GN) rather than by differences in weight per grain. The decrease in GN due to water stress was associated with spikes dry weight (SDW = total spikes weight – grain weight) measured 7 days after anthesis, but some additional experiment effect was detected on GN. Analysis of different weather variables showed the vapor pressure deficit (VPDX) as the one that best explained GN deviations. A model for GN estimation with or without water stress, was developed including the effect of water stress on SDW reduction (), where H represents no water stress:

(R2=0.93).

The SDW was analyzed as the product between spike growth rate (SGR) and the spike growth period (SGP) duration. SGP duration was not affected by water level, but anthesis date was up to 9 days earlier under water stress in Córdoba. SGR was more associated with crop growth rate (CGR) than with assimilates partition to spikes, and this effect increased when CGR was reduced. CGR was associated with the amount of intercepted photosynthetic active radiation during the SGP but not with the radiation use efficiency. Thus, GN was affected for both water stress reducing the availability of assimilates for spike growth and VPDX of each environment.

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Study on Adoption Behaviour of Flower Growers and their Level of Economic Inspiration under NHM in Indore District

Abstract There is no need to emphasis that floriculture is an important agribusiness gaining commercial importance in the vital scenario of Indian agriculture. India being a tropical country has several advantages in floriculture production. Adoption studies are also useful for illustrating the degree to which acceptance of new technologies is limited by insufficient inputs, credit, or marketing infrastructure. If it appears that farmers are unable to take advantage of a new technology because they lack inputs, this information can be presented to policymakers who have responsibility for the agricultural inputs that are available and the way they are distributed. After the study if adoption behaviour shows that access to credit significantly influences the type of technology that farmers use, then this information may be presented to those responsible for designing and funding credit programmes. Similarly, adoption studies may be used to highlight marketing bottlenecks that limit the acceptability of new technologies. Looking is the importance of flower production in Indore district, the personnel of NHM programme provided various extension programmes and facilities for its development. The programme has completed many years, hence, it was felt appropriate to know the adoption behaviour of flowers growers and their level of economic inspiration under NHM. Therefore, a study has been designed, Study showed that out of the total flower growers, the highest proportion of the flower growers 40.00 per cent found to be perceived partial level of economic inspiration followed by perfect level of economic inspiration 32.50 per cent and least level of economic inspiration 27.50 per cent respectively.

Keywords Adoption Behaviour, Economic inspiration, NHM, Indian agriculture, flowers growers.

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Study on Distribution of Microbial and Diazotrophic Azotobacter Population in Five Different Rhizosphere Soil

Abstract The current scenario encounters the steady demand of food supply and the application of fertilizer is become an indispensable in modern agriculture. Hence, the present study is focused on distribution of microbial and diazotrophic Azotobacter population in rhizosphere soil sample. Total microbial population viz, bacteria, fungi, actiomycetes and diazotrophic Azotobacter were enumerated from five different rhizosphere soil samples and compared the distribution of diazotrophic Azotobacter with other three microbial groups. The results of enumeration of total microbial population reveals that comparatively the bacterial population found to be higher followed by Azotobacter population in various rhizosphere soil. Based on the predominant growth, five Azotobacter strains (one isolate from each sample) were isolated and authenticated through morphological and biochemical characteristics.

KeywordsDiazotrophs, Microbial population, Nitrogen fixation, Azotobacter.

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Optimization of Storage Methods of Cowpea (Vigna Unguiculata L. Walp) Bagged Pics Containing Biopesticide (Lippia Multiflora) By Central Composite Experimental Design in COTE D’IVOIRE

Abstract The dried leaves of Lippia multiflora were tested for the efficiency on the stored cowpea kernels in PICS bags. A central composite design with five levels represented by two factors affecting the beans storage was used for control the evolution of merchantability (weight loss) and health (AFB1, OTA and Aw) quality during the storage. The factors were: storage time (1 to 8 months) and quantity of biopesticides (0 to 5% of the container mass). Results showed that it is possible to assess ideal conditions to keep the cowpea kernel merchantability and health qualities during storage. The quality of the kernels maintained for a concentration in biopesticide greater than or equal to 1,26% during 8 months. In the planned optimal conditions, the experimental values were 3.50±0.50%, 1.48±0.3 µg/kg, 4.54±0.02 µg/kg and 0.71±0.03 for weight losses, aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and water activity (Aw) respectively. These values of weight losses, mycotoxins levels and were substantially equal to those predicted by the experimental model.

Keywords Cowpea, PICS bags, biopesticides, central composite design, safety quality.

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Thallium-Transfer from Artificially Contaminated Soil to Young Downy Oak Plants (QUERCUS PUBESCENS WILLD.)

Abstract The aim of this study concerns the observation over time of some young downy oak plants (Quercus pubescens Willd.), grown in a soil artificially contaminated with thallium, to determine i) thallium uptake and concentrations in individual parts (roots, trunks and leaves); ii) thallium transfer capacity from soil to plants; iii) the behavior of growth of affected plants by thallium contamination.

The value of Bio-concentration Factor (BF) shows the ability of plants to accumulate and concentrate thallium from artificially contaminated soil. Values of BF greater than 1 explain the tendency of Quercus Pubescens Willd. to accumulate thallium in higher concentration than soil. The translocation factor (TF), calculated as the percentage ratio of thallium concentration in aerial parts to thallium concentration in roots, yet asserts a total transfer of thallium through the roots to aerial parts of the plants These data once again demonstrate the roots collapse in the fifth phase (200 days) and the lost of the ability to keep thallium in soil.

The microbial biomass carbon was lower in contaminated soils compared to the controls, and the entity of reduction was proportional to depth. The upper layer showed a decline of microbial population of almost 70%, while in the latter end of soil microbial population was reduced of 30% compared to control.Simultaneously, variations of the enzyme activity in the soil samples showed an increase of arylsulphatase, cellulase and β-glucosidase activity but only in the latter part of top soil (10-15 cm) while other enzymes exhibited a remarkable reduction of their activity in both soil layers, compared to the control.

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Influence of Plant Growth Regulators and Explant Type on Multiple Shoot Induction and Somatic Embryogenesis in Sesame (Sesamum indicum L.)

Abstract Sesamum indicum L. is used as an important oil crop in the world. For establishing of a simple and a rapid system for in vitro culture of sesame shoot tips and hypocotyls explants were cultured on MS media with differtent combinations and concentrations of PGRs. On medium with 5 mgl-1BA plus 1 mgl-1 IAA and 1 mgl-1 ABA mutliple shoot induction on explants was occurred. Multiple shoot indution on medium supplemented with 2 mgl-1BA and 0.3 mgl-1 NAA happen with a short phase of callusing. Also MS medium with 3 mgl-1 2,4-D and 0.5 mgl-1 kinetin was a suitable medium for inducing of somatic embryogenic calli with the frequency of sub-culturing potential. Regenerated shoots on both media rooted on MS medium plus 1.5 mgl-1 NAA and 0.03 mgl-1 BA and whole regenerated plantlets formed.

Abbreviations: 2,4-D – 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid; ABA – Abscisic acid; BA – 6 benzylaminopurine; IAA – Indole – 3 – acetic acid; IBA – Indole – 3 – butyric acid; Kinetin – n6 – Furfyrylaminopurine; MS – Murashige and Skoog medium; NAA – Naphtalene acetic acid; PGRs – Plants Growth Regulators.

Key words: adventitious shoots, embryogenic calli, sesame.

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Growth and increase of a Pinuspatula plantation with fertilization and thinning treatments

Abstract Thinning and fertilization of forest plantations are forestry practices that are necessary to obtain an increase in the annual volume growth, mean increment and periodic increment (AMI and API) which allow shortening the commercial shift maintaining the same volumes at the time of harvest. In this study, the effect of thinning and fertilization on the growth and increase in Pinuspatula plantations was evaluated, which were established in 1998 in Huayacocotla, Veracruz, Mexico. A 22 factorial experiment was set up in the plantation in order to evaluate the thinning and fertilization factors with two levels each. The experimental unit was a 10×10 m plot. Three repetitions were established per treatment. An residual basal area of 21m2 ha-1was obtained in the thinned plots of the plantation. The average basal area in the unthinned plots was 42 m2 ha-1. The fertilization doses were: 1.4; 0.4; 8.34 kg of urea, calcium triple superphosphate and potassium sulfate, respectively. Fertilization (treatment 3) increased the volume and the AMI 2012, 2013 and 2014. Thinning (treatment 2) tended to increase the API slightly.

Keywords Annual Mean Increase (AMI), Annual Periodic Increase (API), basal area (BA), intensities of thinning, forestry practice, Volume.

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Determination of Arid and Temperature Resistant Sweet Corn (Zea mays saccharata Sturt) Lines

Abstract— The objective of the present study is to identify aridity and temperature resistant sweet corn variety candidates and to provide resource material for development of new hybrid varieties. The research was designed as three-peat random blocks experimental design in Siirt and Sakarya locations in 2014, and irrigation application was conducted with drip irrigation method. Mean plant water consumption in control (I100) was 808 mm and 633 mm in Siirt and Sakarya, and the mean irrigation water amount was 684 mm and 138 mm, respectively. The statistical significances of differences among soil moisture content, chlorophyll-meter value, crop water stress index, fresh corncob, and grain yield were investigated. The arid and temperature resistant sweet corn line was determined according to soil moisture content, chlorophyll-meter value, and crop water stress index. The most arid and temperature resistant corn line, variety line #2, had the lowest moisture content and crop water stress index value but the highest chlorophyll-meter value. We found that to determine the arid and temperature resistant corn lines, soil moisture content values can also be used together with chlorophyll-meter values and crop water stress index.

Keywords Sweet corn, yield, soil moisture, drought.

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Waste Management of Temple Floral offerings by Vermicomposting and its effect on Soil and Plant Growth

Abstract The safe and environmentally harmonious management of solid wastes becomes a major issue in many cities of developing nations .Enormous production of solid wastes coupled with poor management system, results in a significant environmental degradation..In India at most of the religious places a huge tonnage of solid waste is generated largely during functions, worships, ceremonies and festivals. The quantity of flower waste generated by few major temples of Jaipur city was assessed. In present study different proportions of mixture of cattle dung and floral wastes were taken and performed vermicomposting process using Eisenia foetida earth worm species. The bioconversion ratio i.e., waste into vermicompost was found to be high in 50:50 and 60:40 proportion. Soil was kept as control throughout the study. After Vermicomposting process analysis of various physical and chemical parameters was done. It was found that 25◦C temperature, 8.0 pH, 1-2mm particle size , 60% moisture content, black colour, odourless,0.88 bulk density were optimum parameters. Vermicomposting resulted in lowering of EC, C: N ratio, C : P ratio and increase in nitrogen, phosphorus , potassium , Calcium , Magnesium and sulfur. In the pot culture studies of Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plants (using prepared floral waste vermicompost as fertilizer) various growth parameters like mean stem diameter, mean plant height, mean leaf number, mean length of roots, yield/plant showed good enhancement of growth .The results indicate that integrated effect of all the nutrients present in flower waste vermicompost results in the increased growth and yield of tomato plants and also played a crucial role in improving soil properties, as compared to control. Thus, vermicomposting of temple flower waste is an excellent and ecofriendly method to get valuable products which will lead to a healthier and waste free environment.

Keywords Temple Floral Waste, Vermicomposting, Physical -chemical parameters, Tomato, growth.

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Genetic Diversity and Structure Analysis of Masson Pine Clonal Seed Orchard

Abstract An experiment stand of clonal orchard of masson pine, which included the 123 plus trees of 8 provenances collected from 8 provinces of Southern China, was founded at Jingshan County of Hubei province. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) technique was applied to assess genetic diversity and structure for this clonal seed orchard. Total genomic DNA was extracted from fresh needle tissue with Plant Genomic DNA Extraction Miniprep System made by Viotechnology Corporation The results indicated that the clonal seed orchard of masson pine had higher genetic diversity. The average genetic diversity of the clonal seed orchard was 0.3169, the Shannon’s information index was 0.4813 respectively, and the percentage of polymorphic loci was 71.0%. Observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei’s gene diversity (H), Shannon’s information index (I) and percentage of polymorphic loci (P) within population of Jiangxi, Hunan and Zhejiang were bigger than those of Guangdong, Guangxi, Anhui and Sichuan. Genetic distances among 8 populations were range from 0.0225 to 0.2175, whereas genetic identities were range from 0.8045 to 0.9777. 8 populations were clustered into 7 clusters, which showed that populations with similar latitude were clustered together and the clustering had nothing to do with geographic distributing. There was not significant correlation between genetic distance and geographic distance, while the correlation between genetic distance and latitude was more significant.

Keywords Genetic diversity, Genetic distance, Shannon’s information index, Masson Pine, Clonal Seed Orchard.

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An Assessment of the Socio-economic Impact of Maiganga Resettlement Scheme, Akko LGA, Gombe State, Nigeria

Abstract The paper has examined the socio-economic impact of Maiganga resettlement scheme in Akko LGA of Gombe State. Data was collected through field observation, use of structured questionnaire, interviews and secondary materials. The findings of the study shows that Maiganga resettlement scheme is a coal mine induced resettlement scheme. Three communities of Maiganga, Kargawal and Lakandangari consisting 976 persons were resettled. Despite the provision of 75 houses, 4 boreholes, 1 primary school of three blocks of classroom, 1 skill acquisition centre, 3 primary health care/maternity, 3 transformer with electricity, a mosques and church, there was much agitation after the resettlement scheme. Monetary compensations were paid to the farmers for loss of farm lands. The compensation ranges between ₦10,000 (USD 36) to ₦150,000 (USD 536) depending on the size of farm land lost. The local communities claimed that the amount paid to them as compensation was grossly inadequate and that the management of the company reneged on most of the issues agreed upon in their informal gentleman arrangement. This agitation resulted in the stoppage of work in the coal mine for two weeks in 2014. The study recommends the need to sustain dialogue with the local communities, employ teachers and health workers in the primary school and health care facility to make it functional.

Keywords Akko, Gombe, Maiganga, Resettlement and Socio-economic.

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Ochratoxin A production by Aspergillus section Nigri strains isolated from currants of Greek origin

AbstractBlack aspergilli is an important group of fungi used in biotechnology and food industry. Some species of this group produce hazardous mycotoxins such as ochratoxin A (OTA). During this study, four novel strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from Greek currants (ATHUM 6997, 6998, 6999, 7000) were investigated for OTA production on Yeast Extract Sucrose (YES) medium and currants. As strains control were used both A. carbonarius and A. ochraceus.

OTA determined using HPLC (Fluorescence Detector). Results revealed that OTA production by A. carbonarius in currants was not significantly different compared to OTA production by the Aspergillus section Nigri strains.

However the maximum amounts of OTA produced by the strains ATHUM 6997 and 6999 in currants were found to be ~2-fold lower than that by A. carbonarius. The maximum OTA levels produced by the strains ATHUM 6997, 6998, 6999 and 7000 were found to be ~7, ~12, ~9 and ~11 fold higher respectively, if compared to the maximum OTA production by A. ochraceus. The novel strains of Aspergillus section Nigri isolated from currants of Greek origin, produced significant amounts of OTA in YES medium and in currants. Along with a previous study, in the present work it is concluded that the four Aspergillus section Nigri strains are able to produce both aflatoxin B1 and OTA.

KeywordsOchratoxin A, Aspergillus section Nigri, Currants, Yeast extract sucrose

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Hepatoprotective and stress – reducing effects of dietary Moringaoleifera extract against Aeromonashydrophila infections and  transportation-induced stress in Nile tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus (Linnaeus 1757) fingerlings

Abstract The main aim of the present study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective and stress-reducing effects of Moringaoleifera extract against A. hydrophila infection and transportation- induced stress in Nile tilapia, Oreochromisniloticus fingerlings. Fish were fed diets representing different supplementation levels of Moringaoleifera leaf extract. The graded levels of M. oleifera leaf extract were 0.00g (control), 0.05g, 0.10g, 0.15g, 0.20g, 0.25g per 100g for each diet. After six weeks of the feeding trial, fish previously fed each experimental diet were exposed to pathogenic strain of Aeromonashydrophila at a concentration of 9.3 × 105 CFU /mL. After bath exposure, fish from each dietary treatment was placed into the aquaria culture system. They were fed their respective diets at 5% body weight twice daily, and mortality was monitored for the remaining 4 weeks of the feeding trial. After the feeding trial, fish previously fed each experimental diet were kept in plastic tanks for a 2-hour journey. Blood and liver samples were collected for hepatocellular assessments (Aspartate transaminase (AST), Alanine transaminase (ALT), Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and Malate dehydrogenase (MDH) tests) and stress biomarkers (survival, cortisol and glucose). Results showed that the increases of the AST, ALT, LDH, MDH, cortisol and glucose induced by stressors were significantly reduced (P< 0.05) by supplementing the fish with M. oleifera leaf extract in the diets. Based on the result of this study, a dose of 0.10g/100g dietary Moringa leaf supplementation was sufficient as a hepatoprotective and stress reducing agent in Nile tilapia, O. niloticus.

Keywords Moringaoleifera, hepatoprotective,stress-reducing, Oreochromisniloticus, supplementation.

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Evidence of natural hybridization and introgression between Medicago ciliaris and Medicago intertexta

AbstractThe present study, investigated some reproductive and fertility parameters in some wild populations, originating from the North Tunisia (4 populations of Medicago ciliaris and 3 populations of Medicago intertexta). Previous finding revealed that these species are genetically distinct and easily recognized by the number of flowers per inflorescence and pod dimensions. However, biometrical traits and isozyme patterns intermediacy between these two species had detected the existence of a potential spontaneous interspecific hybrid originating from Sedjnane locality in Tunisia. Indeed, the present work has shown significant decrease of pollen fertility and seed production for this population when compared to the others (pollen viability 75%, pollen germinability 8% and pod production=9%). These results suggested a possible natural interspecific hybrid and confirming introgressive hybridization possibility between M. intertexta and M. ciliaris.

Keywords—Fertility parameters, Natural introgressive hybridisation, Genetic diversity, M. ciliaris, M. intertexta, Pollen viability, Pollen fertility.

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Evaluation of Seed and Oil Yield with Some Yield Components of Safflower Varieties in Kahramanmaras (Turkey) Conditions

Abstract Oilseeds production of Turkey is not available to meet domestic requirements. Turkey has been facing a recurring shortage of vegetable oils for many years. Presently, about 50% of vegetable oil being consumed in Turkey has to be imported. Turkey has a suitable climate for producing of many oilseeds. Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a multipurpose crop. Traditionally, the crop was grown for its seeds, and flower petals were used for coloring and flavoring foods. For the last fifty years, the plant has been cultivated mainly for the vegetable oil extracted from its seeds. Thus, there is an urgent need to take immediate actions for increasing oilseed production through growing underutilized and minor oilseeds like safflower. Increased safflower production will reduce the import of oilseeds and help meet our domestic oil requirement. This research was conducted to determine the seed and oil yield with some yield components of safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) varieties in Kahramanmaras (Turkey) conditions using a randomized complete block design with four replications in 2015. In the study, Dincer, Balcı, Remzibey, Rio, Nebraska 10, Oleicleed, Quiriego 88, San Jose 89, Sina and Gila cultivars were used as the plant material. These ten safflower varieties were evaluated for plant height, branch number and head number per plant, 1000-seed weight, hull ratio, seed oil content, seed and oil yield. The results showed that plant height, branch number per plant, head number per plant, 1000-seed weight, hull ratio and seed oil content for ten safflower cultivars ranged between 40.15-46.80 cm, 4.58-6.65, 8.23-14.20, 34.85-45.99 g, 36.12-45.51 % and 29.53-35.31 %, respectively. The highest seed yield (992.3 kg ha-1) and the lowest seed yield (826.8 kg ha-1) were obtained from the varieties Balcı and Sina, respectively. Balcı variety had the highest seed yield and gave the highest oil yield.

Keywords Safflower, Carthamus tinctorius L., seed yield, oil yield, yield components.

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Influence of secondary host plants on the embryonic and larval development of Callosobruchus maculatus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae, Bruchinae)

Abstract The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of secondary host plants on the embryonic and larval development of C.maculatus. The influences of three secondary host plants were compared to the influence of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.), the primary host plant in the life cycle of C. maculatus. For the experiments, C.maculatus adults were extracted from cowpea seeds and transferred to the seeds of the two secondary host plants used in this study: striped or white Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millsp.). Transferred insects were maintained for two years on the seeds of these plants by regular rearings before being used in each of the different experiments. To determine embryonic development time, couples were brought into contact with different seeds for laying. The eggs that were laid were then observed until they hatched. To identify the different larval stages and determine their respective development time, the seeds were first infested and then dissected at specific intervals in time. The results show a reduction in the embryonic development time in white Bambara groundnut seeds compared to the seeds of the other plants. Development time of the two early instars for all strains was significantly long on the three secondary host plant seeds than on cowpea seeds. However the opposite trend was observed for the pupalstage. Of the three plants used in this experiment, pigeon pea provides the worst conditions for larval and pupalinstar development. These results lead to better understanding of post-embryonic development of C. maculates occurring within the seeds of secondary host plants. This research provides valuable insight into developing appropriate methods for pest control.

Keywords pest management, secondary host plants, C. maculatus, embryonic and larval development, adaptation, primary host plant.

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Effect of Temperature and Moisture on Degradation of Herbicide Atrazine in Agricultural Soil

Abstract Degradation rate and degraded products, deethylatrazine (DEA), deisopropylatrazine (DIA) and atrazine-2-hydroxy (HA), of herbicide atrazine in agricultural soil were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. When treating soils for 60d at 25°C, the degradation rate of atrazine increased with the moisture from 5 to 20%. The degradation was fitted one-order kinetic equation and degradation rate constant (k) and Half-life (T1/2) were obtained. T1/2 decreased by 3–4 folds with the increasing temperature from 5 to 35°C and moisture from 5 to 20%. The species and content of the degraded products increased with the temperature and moisture. When treating soil for 60d, the sum content of three degraded products, DEA, DIA and HA is 3–6.8 times greater than atrazine residue. An updated metabolism pathway of atrazine in soil was presented.

Keywords Atrazine, Degradation kinetics, Degradation products, Metabolism pathways, Soil.

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Effect of temperature on biodegradation of textile dyeing effluent using pilot scale UASB Reactor

Abstract This study deals with the effect of temperature on treatment of real textile dyeing effluent using pilot scale two-phase Upflow Anaerobic Sludge Blanket (UASB) reactor with sago effluent as co-substrate under recycle mode. The temperature of the reactor was varied viz. 35, 40, 45 and 50 0C. The feed of the reactor was 30% of methanogenic outlet recycled and 70% of 70/30 (sago/textile dyeing effluent) mixing ratio were given at the bottom of the reactor. The reactor was operated at 24 h of HRT. The performance of the bioreactor was evaluated by monitoring the removal of Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), removal of color, Volatile Fatty Acid (VFA) and biogas production. The overall COD and color removal were achieved maximum of 98.4% and 99.3% respectively. Based on temperature, the biogas production (0.512 m3/d) was maximum at 450C. From the VFA and alkalinity ratio values obtained indicate that the reactors were operated under steady state. The results shows, that the sago and textile dyeing effluent have wide variation in their characteristics were treated on combination, whereas the recycle ratios maintain the stability of reactor. This new technology supports the effective utilization of sago effluent in destruction of dyeing effluent; the optimum temperature for efficient reactor operation was 450C.

Keywords Textile dyeing, sago, UASB, temperature, recycle.

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The Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPS) of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) Gene and Endometriosis

Abstract

Aim: The aim of the present work was to evaluate associations between the risk of endometriosis and -460C/T (rs833061) and +405G/C (rs2010963) polymorphisms in the VEGF gene.

Methodology: In the present study, we examined group of 100 patients with endometriosis and 100 controls. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood. Determination of genes polymorphic variants was made using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism technique (PCR-RFLP).

Results: Presented study showed statistically significant increase in the endometriosis development risk for the -460T/T genotype (OR 3.39; 95% CI, 1.60-7.13; p = 0.002) and for the -460T allele (OR 2.49; 95% CI, 1.64-3.78; p <.0001), as well as for the +405C/C genotype (OR 2.16; 95% CI, 1.047-4.48; p = 0.035) in patients with endometriosis in comparison with healthy control group. We also observed positive association of the +405C/C genotype (OR 0.26; 95% CI, 0.08-0.79; p = 0.019) as well as the +405C allele occurrence with an increased endometriosis development risk (OR 0.31; 95% CI, 0.19-0.71; p = 0.005), assessed by the degree of rASRM classification stages.

Conclusion: The results support the hypothesis that the -460C/T and +405G/C polymorphisms of the VEGF gene may be associated with endometriosis occurrence in Poland.

Keywords— endometriosis, genetic polymorphisms, VEGF.

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The Evaluation of Organochlorine Pesticide Residues in The Blood and Urine Samples of Cattles in Kaduna Metropolis

Abstract The levels of Organochlorine pesticide residues in the blood and urine samples of Cattles in some selected areas within Kaduna metropolis in Nigeria were determined using standard methods. The results revealed the presence of alpha-lindane, delta-lindane, Dichlorodiethyldichloroethylene (DDE), Dichlorodiphenyldicloroethane (DDD)and endosulfan. In the blood, Alpha-lindane, delta-lindane, Dichlorodiethyldichloroethylene (DDE), Dichlorodiphenyldicloroethane (DDD) and endosulfan were detected at concentrations of 2.06 mg/kg, 2.23 mg/kg, 1.84 mg/kg, 1.94 mg/kg and 0.32 mg/kg respectively. In the urine samples, alpha-lindane, delta-lindane, DDD and endosulfan were detected at concentrations of 0.03 mg/kg, 0.03 mg/kg, 0.01 mg/kg and 0.38 mg/kg respectively. The levels of some of the detected organo-chlorine pesticides residues were above permissible limit of 0.01 mg/kg approved by European Union (EU) and therefore pose threats to the lives of human beings by causing some harmful diseases such as cancer, birth defect and respiratory problems.

Keywords Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), Blood and Urine samples, European Union (EU), Gas –Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (GC – MS).

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Evaluation of Water Quality in Parts of Wadi Fatimah, Western Saudi Arabia

Abstract 11 wells in Wadi Fatimah were chosen to perform this study. The studied area was classified into three regions namely Abo-Hassani, Al-Khief, and Allaf. In Abo-Hassani, the water quality agrees with the WHO standards. The TDS was between 175 and 339 ppm. The hardness was below 193 ppm. The sodium and the chloride were below 71 and 63 ppm, respectively. The water here suffers from the presence of E.Coli. In Al-Kheif region, the water suffers from the high TDS 1077 ppm and the presence of E. Coli. In Allaf region the TDS was high a little (487 ppm), but still within WHO standards for drinking water. In this region, the sulfate value and the total hardness were above 250 ppm, which exceeds the WHO standards.

Keywords Wadi Fatimah, Water quality, Western Saudi Arabia water quality.

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Explaining the relationship between energy consumption and economic growth in a dynamic panel model: Are the BRICs countries different?

Abstract The aim of this paper is to explore the energy consumption-economic growth nexus for four emerging countries (Brazil, Russia, India and China – the BRIC countries) over the period 1989-2014. By applying a set of recent panel data models, we show that increases in real per capita GDP have a positive and statistically significant effect on per capita energy consumption (and vice-versa). In the long term, a 1% increase in real per capita GDP raises the energy consumption per capita by about 0.56-0.67% while a 1% increase in per capita energy use increases the real per capita GDP by about 0,87-1.69%. Thus, the impact of real GDP on energy consumption is less important than vice versa.

Keywords the BRICs countries, the energy-growth nexus, panel cointegration methods.

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