Treatment of landfill leachate through struvite precipitation and nitrogen removal bacteria and poly-phosphate bacteria (in-pots experiment)
Abstract— Landfill leacheate is a type of wastewater which contains large amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus, therefore it needed to be treated before releasing to directly to the environment. The combination between struvite precipitation and nitrogen removal and poly-P bacteria into wastewater for landfill leachate treatment has been found to be a cost-effective practive, a viable technology in terms of environmental protection and sustainability, especially in the developing-countries. For optimum struvite crystallization from landfill leachate, the Mg:PO4 molar ratio as (1.2:1) was used, the pH of reaction was adjusted to 9 and the sample was stirred continously during 40 minutes. The supernatant sample was then added 1% nitrogen removal bacteria (Pseudomonas stutzeri D3b strain) and 1% poly-P bacteria (Kurthia sp. TGT1013L strain), 5 g glucose/L and aeration 12/24h during 3 days, ammonium concentration reduced significantly from 1076 mg/L to 1.5 mg/L and orthophosphate concentration decreased noticeably from 24.91 mg/L to 7.6 mg/L.
Abstract— In order to evaluate the effect of preservation on fresh-cut taro, the edible coatings preservatives were connected with Konjac glucan-mannan (KGM), potassium sorbate, chitosan, by determining changes of weight loss rate, browning degree (BD), polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POD), the preservative effect on fresh-cut taro were studied. The optimal composite of Konjac glucan-mannan (KGM), potassium sorbate, chitosan was analyzed by single factor test and Box-Behnken response surface method. The results showed the optimal concentration were KGM 6g/L, potassium sorbate 4g/L and chitosan 8g/L. Verified test showed that composite coating could reduce the weight loss rate, browning, PPO and POD activity of fresh-cut taro.
Abstract— In this study, a non commercial PTE was covalently immobilized on the NaX zeolite crystals and its ability to biodegrade the paraoxon to a less harmful compound was investigated. The immobilization method did not change the enzyme catalytic performance. In fact, the specific activity was the same of the free one. Besides, the process improved the stability of the enzyme.
The obtained results are interesting because of usually the immobilization process increases the enzyme stability but causes a reduction of its catalytic activity. Therefore, this pioneer study of the immobilization of the PTE on zeolite particles seems to be an environmental-friendly solution to the problem of pesticides pollution.
Background and Purpose: Charcoal is a residue that occurs from the results of decomposition of wood due to heat when most of the chemical components are carbon. One method of making wood charcoal is to use a stove. Charcoal is an important factor in determining the sustainability of the lives of surrounding communities that have long been running. Therefore the purpose of this study is to create a strategy based on the SWOT analysis to see if the charcoal business using mangrove forests can proceed or not.
Materials and Methods: Analysis of sustainable development strategies using SWOT Analysis which is one of the analyses used to formulate a strategy in an area of development. This analysis consists of 4 basic elements, namely strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats. These four elements come from two main factors: internal factors (strengths and weaknesses) and external factors (opportunities and threats). While the stages in the SWOT analysis.
Results: Analysis of public perception of the existence of charcoal trading business in the Bengkalis District gave a “Good response” with a score of 2.66. These results illustrate that the existence of a charcoal trading business does not provide a bad impact as long as it is in a location around a mangrove forest. The results obtained in the SWOT matrix diagram are in the fourth quadrant; show that the priority of the strategy is the Strength (S) and Threats (T) strategies. The components in these two strategies need to get more emphasis and attention so that the existence of a charcoal trading business can be sustainable.
Conclusion: The public perception of the charcoal long-standing regulation in the” Bengkalis Regency” is in the “Good category” which is a prerequisite in the development of continuous charcoal. The strategy for sustainable charcoal development is in quadrant IV, namely the S-T strategy.
Abstract—In vitro efficacy six chemical substance were evaluated against Erwinia carotovora the causal organism of potato soft rot disease. E. carotovora was isolated from diseased potato tubers by dilution plate technique and different biochemical and pathogenicity test were performed to confirm the bacterial species. Six chemicals viz. Copper Oxychloride @ 0.2%, Mancozeb @ 0.2%, Boric acid @ 0.1%, Kasugamycin @ 0.02%, Carbendazim @ 0.3% and Sodium Hypochlorite @ 0.2% were tested against E. carotovora subsp. carotovora by well diffusion method. For each treatment there were four replications and tested chemical volume was 100 µl. Data were recorded up to five days of incubation. Maximum zone of inhibition (mm) was obtained after 48 hours of incubation with Copper Oxychloride (30.35 mm), followed by Mancozeb (20.15 mm), Boric acid (19.15 mm) and Kasugamycin (16.28mm). Copper Oxychloride produced the maximum growth inhibition (33.72%) of the pathogen, on the other hand Sodium Hypochlorite (2.68%) did not efficiently inhibit the growth of E. carotovora. Copper Oxychloride proved to be the best chemical followed by Mancozeb under in-vitro management against E. carotovora subsp. carotovora.
Constraints, mitigations, and opportunities for sustainable development of rice-based system in Laos
Abstract— Rice production in Xieng Ngeun District (XND), Lao People’s Democratic Republic (PDR) faces several challenges that have resulted in a decline in rice production and a, therefore, food insecurity in the country. Smallholder farmers in XND, Luang Prabang in the Northern part of Lao are the most affected resulting in poor households and economies. Therefore, this study aims first to identify the key constraints affecting rice production systems; secondly to review the opportunities that exist in the rice production systems and lastly, to discuss opportunities that exist if the constraints are mitigated that can boost sustainable development of rice-based systems (SDRBS). A structured questionnaire was administered to village headmen, community members, and farmers in the nine selected villages with a total sample size of 374 farmers. Farmers’ strength for rice is that they have agricultural land, on average 3 hectares per family. Apart from rice production, the majority of farmers have diversified into maize, Job’s tears, vegetable cultivation and livestock keeping. The key strength of the respondent was the availability of land as most of them had more than 3ha of agricultural land. The diversification into the production of other crops is an important constraint to rice production. Labour was also an important constraint to rice production as most families have more than six children; thus, one member has to stay behind to take care of the children. The opportunities to improve rice production is mainly in the adoption of modern farming approaches using improved rice varieties, fertilizer application, use of herbicides for weed control and pesticides for insects and disease control. The farmers do not use pesticides to control insect pest and disease, and thus perennially faced challenges in rice production due to pest and diseases outbreaks. Moreover, there was a low rice productivity since majority of the the farmers did not use fertilizers in their fields, with a paltry 0.8% of the farmers recording positive response to fertilizer use. Despite this, most of the farmers (78.3%) indicated that they do not use herbicides for weed control. Market accessibility was a major concern to the farmers due to poor road infrastructure, hence resulting in delayed farm operations and produce spoilage. The farmers should be encouraged to adopt modern farming practices such use of pesticides to insect and disease management, weed control using herbicides for weed control, and fertilizer applications for improved soil fertility and yield. Moreover, there exist additional opportunities to improve rice productivity through adoption of improved rice cultivars, farm mechanizations, provision of extension services and improved market accessibility.
Abstract—Good bioformulation play crucial roles in the successfully of commercialize biological control products. The development of bioformulation is necessary to improve product stability, delivery and bioactivity. The aim of this study is to assess the shelf life of P. oxalicum T3.3 conidia in the different ratio(1:1,1:2,2:1) of Biochar:Biocompost (BcBp) and Peat:Vermiculite (PtVm) and temperature (4ºC and room temperature) for 6 months. The results showed that P. oxalicum T3.3 was able to sustain highest viable cell (CFU) at 4ºC storage temperature. BcBp and PtVm have the highest cell viability at ratio 2:1 and 1:1, respectively. Both BcBp and PtVm showed potential carriers for the development of biofungicide for agriculture purposes.
Background: Obesity (Ob) linked to Breast Cancer (BC) has reached epidemic proportions worldwide (WW) including Indonesia, Brazil, Bangladesh and also developed countries. To assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of central Ob and BC WW, are commonly linked with geography (wet and warm climate), race, immigrant, but not SES.
Problem: Low and middle-SES are associated with lower outcome affect late diagnosis, late hospitalization and treatment, but not with p53 mutation caused by AFB1 exposure.
Objectives: Low and middle-SES and neighborhood are linked to AFB1 exposure as the cause of Ob/BC prevalence.
Method: PRISMA design of Systematic Review using Science Direct and EBSCO data based with keywords Ob/BC AND SES. A Bayesian network of Ob (BMI, WC, WHR) and SES (neighborhood) are used. Mainly high AFB1 high guideline AFB1 exposures are recorded.
Result: One flowchart detected 152 references and one table or 30 references which included 153,099 subjects at least supported SES/AFB1-associated Ob/BC prevalence or almost related.
Conclusion: Low and middle-SES represent AFB1 exposure as the cause of Ob/BC beyond geography, race and ethnic.