IJOEAR: March 2018

Agriculture Journal: Published Volume-4, Issue-3, March 2018

Antifungal activity of banana rachis leachate on some fungi responsible for banana (Musa acuminata Colla) post-harvest diseases

Abstract Post-harvest diseases are a major problem for banana yield. Despite treatments with chemical fungicides, a persistence of diseases is noticed. This study aims at proposing a biological control method against banana post-harvest diseases by using banana rachis leachate. The effect of leachate has been tested in vitro on mycelial growth, conidial germination and in vivo on pathogenic fungi virulence. All leachate concentrations (5, 15 and 20%) tested showed antifungal activity on the tested fungi. However, the 20% concentration was more effective with complete inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination of all fungi. No symptoms of crown rot and anthracnose were observed after treatment of bananas with leachate. However, with azoxystrobin, the prevalence of crown rot and anthracnose was 60% and 30%, respectively. Banana rachis leachate recorded highly significant reduction of banana finger rot prevalence compared to azoxystrobin. Banana rachis leachate have strong antifungal properties that may be useful to control banana post-harvest disease as a safe alternative option to chemical fungicides

Keywords banana; post-harvest diseases; banana rachis leachate, antifungal activity.

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Bacteriological Assessment of Lettuce Vended in Benin City Edo State, Nigeria

Abstract The microbiological content of Lettuce (a vegetable), commonly vended in the Benin metropolis of Edo state were evaluated. Five vending locations were chosen for the study. Whole and soft rot samples were purchased and analysed for microbiological composition. Results showed high counts in soft rot samples in lettuce. Nutrient agar plated lettuce samples had bacterial counts in the range of 2.0x 103 to 4.7×107. Pseudomonas species was the dominant species found in lettuce samples. Bacillus species was isolated from one location in the lettuce samples. Mac Conkey agar plated lettuce plated had bacterial counts in the range of 2.3 x 103 to 5.7x 107. Enterobacter species, E. coli, and Klebsiella species were the dominant species isolated. Though, Proteus species was isolated from lettuce samples obtained from location five only. The study observes that consuming soft rot samples could pose a risk of introducing pathogens to the consumer due to their high microbial counts and could be detrimental to the health of the consumer.

Keywords Bacteriological Assessment, Lettuce, Benin City, microbiological content.

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Bravecto (fluralaner) chewable tablets have been thoroughly evaluated in multiple countries and are approved as a safe and effective flea, tick and mite treatment for dogs

Abstract Bravecto (fluralaner) is thoroughly tested to international safety standards for veterinary drugs, meeting approval requirements for over 70 countries. This valuable antiparasite (fleas, ticks and mites) treatment contributes to the health of millions of dogs and promotes dog health worldwide by protecting them against dangerous parasite infestations that are known to lead to pathogen transmission, blood loss, local irritation, and skin allergies. In 2017, the European Medicines Agency (EMA) completed an in depth targeted review of all reported adverse events (ADE) related to various potential disorders and confirmed the positive benefit-risk profile of Bravecto. Official records that monitor adverse events are often available online and these reports can be easily misunderstood by people unfamiliar with the procedures and how to interpret monitoring information. For example, many people do not know that the FDA advises “For any given ADE report, there is no certainty that the reported drug caused the adverse event.” This means that the cause of a problem reported to this agency has not been determined, and this is typical of drug use reports. Multiple communications from individual dog and cat owners provided photographs showing how their pet has dramatically improved with the help of fluralaner treatment.

Keywords cat, dog, fluralaner, pharmacovigilance, safety.

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A new biosorbent with controlled grain (I). Efficient elimination of cationic dyes from textile dyeing wastewater

Abstract Environmental care is an increasing concern in our society, and therefore integrated, circular economy allowing to close the industrial cycle is an urging demand. This project employs a residue of the food industry to recover the wastewaters from the textile industry, allowing closing the loop in two different industrial processes. Orange peel is a very abundant residue in the food industry. By chemical modification of the orange peel, we aim to produce a biosorbent to be employed in the treatment of the textile industry wastewater containing cationic dyes. In this project, we evaluate the capacity of the treated orange peels as cationic interchanger with different dissolutions of copper (II). Finally, their capacities as biosorbents were evaluated with four cationic dyes, examining the influence of different parameters like: biosorbent concentration, contact time, temperature and pH of the medium. An adsorption between 51 and 92 % was reached with the first treatment and also the possibility of the biosorbent recovery.

Keywords basic dyes, biosorbent, biosorption, orange peel, wastewaters.

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Community composition and species diversity of fruit-eating-insects of Gymnacranthera paniculata, Macaranga aleuritoides and Mastixiodendron pachyclado in a Papua New Guinea Primary Forest

Abstract Community composition and species diversity of fruit-eating-insects were studied in a primary forest at Wanang, Madang, Papua New Guinea (PNG) using fruits regularly sampled and insects attacking them reared, preserved and identified. Sampling was done in different areas of the forest including low and high abundance of the host trees. Fruits of three predominant host trees, G. paniculata (Myristicaceae), M. aleuritoides (Euphorbiaceae) and M. pachyclados (Rubiaceae) were regularly collected and insects associated with them studied. The emergence from the fruits were 13 insect families and 16 species from G. paniculata, 17 insect families and 21 species from M. aleuritoides and 17 insect families and 25 species from M. pachyclados. Diversity assessment showed M. pachyclados was more diverse (H=2.0258) followed by G. paniculata (H=2.007). M. aleuritoides was the least diverse (H=1.443). A high percentage of scavengers and wood eaters were found in G. paniculata and M. aleuritoides. In M. pachyclados, more seed eaters, chewers and parasitoids were found instead. These results have implications for management of the community composition and diversity of the fruit-eating insects of the three host three species.

Keywords Community composition, species diversity, fruit-eating-insects, Papua New Guinea.

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Faunistic Analysis of Soil Mites in Coffee Plantation

Abstract ─ The soil-litter system is the natural habitat for a wide variety of organisms, microorganisms and invertebrates, with differences in size and metabolism, which are responsible for numerous functions. The soil mesofauna is composed of animals of body diameter between 100 μm and 2 mm, consisting of the groups Araneida, Acari, Collembola, Hymenoptera, Diptera, Protura, Diplura, Symphyla, Enchytraeidae (Oligochaeta), Isoptera, Chilopoda, Diplopoda and Mollusca. These animals, extremely dependent on humidity, move in the pores of the soil and at the interface between the litter and the soil. The edaphic fauna, besides having a great functional diversity, presents a rich diversity of species. As a result, these organisms affect the physical, chemical and, consequently, the biological factors of the soil. Therefore, the edaphic fauna and its activities are of extreme importance so that the soil is fertile and can vigorously support the vegetation found there, being spontaneous or cultivated. The composition, distribution and density of the edaphic acarofauna varies according to the soil depth, mites size, location and the season of the year. Edaphic mites are generally found in greater quantities in the organic matter layer than in the soil mineral. The subclass Acari is divided in seven orders being the Mesostigmata, Trombidiformes, Endeostigmata and Sarcoptiformes those that frequently occur in the soil. In the order Sarcoptiformes the suborder Oribatida (formerly Cryptostigmata) is one of the more numerous groups of soil arthropods, both in number of species and specimens. Considering the above facts, it was the objective of this work to know the acarofauna of the soil in a coffee plantation and rank the taxa in a decreasing way, by the use of faunistic analysis. The soil samples were taken in coffee plantation in the Experimental Station of EPAMIG, in São Sebastião do Paraíso, MG, Brazil, in two periods, end of dry and end of rainy season of the year 2013, and the extraction of edaphic mites of the soil mesofauna was done at the Laboratory of Acarology of EPAMIG Sul/EcoCentro, in Lavras, as well as other activities related to the study. The result show that edaphic mites of the cohort Astigmatina and suborder Oribatid are dominant in both periods studied, and can be worked to be an indicative of soil quality.

Keywords ─ Agricultural acarology, Coffea arabica, Edaphic mites, Soil mites, Soil mesofauna.

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Nondestructive testing of sliding bearings

Abstract— A validation of electro-physical probing method usage is given for a sliding bearings diagnostic at a boundary friction. Electric circuits and a way of sliding bearings diagnostic, where an analysis of a boundary lubricating layer (BLL) thickness control is carried out on contact resistance parameters indirectly. A sliding bearing lubricating state is defined on previously installed threshold values which achievement defines its running regime.

Keywords boundary lubrication layer, contact resistance, diagnostic, criteria, phenomenological model.

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Efficiency of Cooperative Societies in Credit Delivery to Agricultural Enterprises in Yakurr Local Government Area, Cross River State, Nigeria

Abstract The study evaluates the efficiency of cooperative societies in credit delivery to agricultural enterprises in Yakurr Local Government Area, Cross River State. The specific objectives were to; describe the socio-economic profile of cooperatives societies, identify the sources of finance that are available and utilize for credit by cooperative societies, analyze the efficiency of cooperatives using the arrival rate of loan request and the service rate and identify the challenges militating against cooperatives as a means of providing credit facilities to farmers in the study area. random sampling method was used to select 30 Cooperative Societies in the Local Government Area. Data were obtained using well structured questionnaire and were analyzed using descriptive statistics and queue theory. Results from the study showed that most of the cooperatives were formed in 2011 with 16-20 members at inception, which stood currently at 21-40 members. The benefits derived from the society ranges from, provision of input for production, accessibility of loan and marketing of products. The large proportion of the amount disbursed to member’s ranges from 11000 – 31000naira. The result revealed that the sources of finance available to members was mainly from members contributions .The result further showed that cooperatives were not effective and efficient in queue management because the average idle time (-0.26) and the average traffic intensity was more than one (1.26).

Also, findings showed that insufficient funds for disbursement(3.33), lack of qualified personnel (3.23), insincerity of members in credit management (3.16) and changes in government credit policies (3.16) were serious challenges that affected efficient delivery of credit by cooperative societies to agricultural enterprises in the study area, The study therefore recommended capacity building for cooperative members to enable them adequately source for funds and efficiently manage loan disbursement and repayment by members. Also, relevant government and nongovernmental financial institutions should be encouraged to channel credit facilities through cooperatives in other to build their financial base and make credit more accessible to agricultural enterprises.

Keywords Efficiency, credit delivery, cooperative societies.

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Comparative Effect of Potting Media on Sprouting and Seedling Growth of Grape Cuttings

Abstract A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of potting media on sprouting and seedling growth of grape cuttings. Three grape varieties viz. Red globe, Thomson seedless and Crimson seedless were planted in four different growth media: CS-Canal silt, CSFYM-Canal silt (75%) + FYM (25%), CSB-Canal silt (25%) + Bagasse (75%) and CSBCP-Canal silt (25%) + Bagasse (50%) + Coco peat (25%). The experiment was conducted in Completely Randomized Design (CRD) along with three replications. The results revealed that almost all observed parameters were significantly influenced by the potting media. However, grape varieties and their interaction with the potting media exhibited non-significant effect for sprouting percentage and most of the seedling related attributes of growth. Minimum days to sprouting (6.78),highest sprouting percentage (84.44), maximum rooting percentage (84.44) and maximum chlorophyll content of leaves (56.23) were observed from the cuttings planted in CSBCP. However, maximum number of sprouts (5.55), number of leaves (13.77), fresh weight of leaves (2.27g), fresh weight of the roots (2.16 g), were observed from CSB. No grape seedling mortality was also observed CSB and CSBCP growth media. On the basis of varietal comparison, Thompson seedless exhibited the best results for number of leaves per cutting (11.50), fresh weight of the roots (1.64 g) and number of roots per cutting (29.17 g) as compared to rest of the grape varieties. The research establishes the potential for locals to use available materials in potting media preparation for healthier and stronger grape seedlings for subsequent improved grape plantation.

Keywords Chlorophyll content, growth of grapes cuttings. Potting, sprouting media.

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